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wetland weed with spiky seed pod

05/16/2021: Broadleaf, roots have a oranges color

This is kochia. It would not be a good ground cover.

Past Submissions and Responses

09/26/2019: Found in pasture, largest clump about a foot high and wide, would like to know if it is safe for horses and how to eradicate.

We think this could be Catchweed Bedstraw or sometimes called cleavers. Here's some info on it –

Tthis is red root pigweed. A 2, 4-D herbicide should work on this.

Linaria vulgaris is a creeping perennial forb in the Scrophulariaceae (Snapdragon) family
• Its yellow-orange snapdragon type flowers resemble those of Dalmatian toadflax
• Numerous long, narrow, smooth and pointed leaves alternate up the stem
• Reproduces through seeds and vigorous, woody roots
• This extremely adaptable invader can move into established native plant communities and form dense monocultures.

Lepidium latifolium is a creeping perennial in the Brassicaceae (Mustard) family
• Tiny, white, 4-petaled flowers in dense clusters near the top of the plant
• Leaves are alternate, lance-shaped and waxy with smooth to toothed margins and get smaller from base to apex of plant
• Reproduces from seed as well as deep-seated, spreading rootstocks
• Robust, often woody stems can reach 4 feet in height
• Invader of riparian areas, pastures, roadsides and disturbed areas

Centaurea diffusa is a tap-rooted perennial forb in the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family
• Solitary flowers range from pink to white and are subtended by spiny bracts
• Leaves are greyish-green, alternate, and rough to the touch
• Diffuse knapweed invades pastures, riparian areas, roadsides, and waste areas. It is a tough competitor on dry sites and rapidly invades and dominates disturbed areas.


Acroptilon repens is a creeping perennial forb in the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family
• Flowers are pink-to-purple, solitary, terminal, 1/3 to 1/2 inch in diameter and have paper-like bracts
• Upper leaves are small and narrow with broken edges; leaves midway up the stem have slightly toothed margins, while basal leaves are deeply notched
• Leaves and stems are covered with short, stiff hairs
• Reproduces both by seed and by aggressive, creeping, lateral roots that are black and scaly
• Invades cultivated fields, ditch banks, fence rows, roadsides, and waste areas. The plant is very poisonous to horses

Convolvulus arvensis is a prostrate or climbing perennial vine in the Convulvulaceae (Morning Glory) family
• Flowers are funnel-shaped, pale pink to white, and subtended by two small bracts
• Leaves are alternate, simple, and shaped like arrow-heads
• Root system includes extensive creeping rhizomes, making this plant impossible to remove mechanically
• Seeds may be viable in the soil for over 60 years which, when combined with its extensive root system, make it one of the most challenging noxious weeds to control

Isatis tinctoria is a tap-rooted biennial or perennial forb in the Brassicaceae (Mustard) family
• Clusters of tiny, yellow 4-petaled flowers born in clusters at the top of the plant
• Leaves are long, narrow, and simple with prominent white veins
• Seeds are contained in black, papery seed pods that hang from branches like ornaments
• Dyer’s woad was likely introduced into the U.S. during the 1700’s for its use in producing a blue textile dye

Hypericum perforatum is a perennial forb that spreads by seeds or creeping roots
• Bright-yellow, five-petaled flowers are ½”- ¾” in diameter and can have over a dozen stamens
• Leaves are covered with small glands that resemble pinholes when held up to a light source. The glands produce photoactive oil that can cause rashes or blisters in animals when browsed
• Typically invades gravelly, well-drained soils and slopes with moderate amounts of sunlight