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weed and seed program quizlet

· Access to agricultural inputs. Women’s access to technological inputs such as improved seeds, fertilisers and pesticides is limited as they are frequently not reached by extension services and are rarely members of cooperatives, which often distribute government subsidised inputs to small farmers. In addition, they often lack the cash income needed to purchase inputs even when they are subsidised

· promote the adoption of appropriate inputs and technology to free up Women’s time for income-producing activities;

FAO studies confirm that while women are the mainstay of small-scale agriculture, farm labour force and day-to-day family subsistence, they have more difficulties than men in gaining access to resources such as land and credit and productivity enhancing inputs and services.

Moreover, Sub-Saharan and near Eastern women play a major role in household animal-production enterprises, where they tend to have the primary responsibility for the husbandry of small animals and ruminants, but also take care of large-animal systems, herding, providing water and feed, cleaning stalls and milking. In all types of animal-production systems, women have a predominant role in processing, particularly milk products and are commonly responsible for their marketing.

· ensure that women have equal opportunities with men to own land;

Cultural Controls are those that disrupt the environment of the pest, and/or prevent its movement. Plowing, crop rotation, removal of infected plant material, cleaning of greenhouse and tillage equipment, and effective manure management are all cultural practices that are employed to deprive pests of a comfortable habitat or prevent their spread. The management of urban and industrial pests has improved with proper sanitation and elimination of pest harborages, more frequent garbage pickup, or installation of lights that do not attract insects.

Physical Barriers such as netting over small fruits and screening in greenhouses can prevent insects that cause crop loss, and mulch can inhibit weed germination beneath desirable plants. Physical barriers are important in termite, house fly, and rodent control. Paint or seal porous wood.

Management tactics

Structural Modifications , such as preventing support timbers from contacting soil, can help prevent damage from several different wood-destroying pests. Wood absorbs moisture and is more susceptible to attack by carpenter ants and termites when in direct contact with the soil. Paints, sealants, or other barrier applications can also prevent pest intrusion into structural materials.

Management tactics can be preventative, curative, or both and are sometimes combined to provide the best possible program. Preventative measures, taken before planting, or before the pest appears, can result in fewer rescue treatments. Each crop and situation will require management options tailored to that situation. A general list of actions is provided below.

Pest-resistant cultivars are less susceptible than other varieties to certain insects and diseases. Planting, disease-resistant crops is one of the simplest methods of reducing disease management actions during the growing season. The use of resistant varieties often means that growers need not apply as many pesticides as with susceptible varieties. Potato growers control the golden nematode by planting resistant cultivars. Apple growers can save up to eight fungicide applications a year by growing certain cultivars that resist diseases. Farmers growing alfalfa and wheat keep several pests at bay by planting resistant varieties. Many ornamental plant cultivars have been bred to resist diseases and insects. American elm and American chestnut may return to our forests in the future as the result of genetically modified cultivars.