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If the wheat is still developing both Simplicity and Osprey will control some big broadleaf and grass weeds. They may not be killed but they likely will stop growing. They can only be applied up to the jointing stage and most vegetables cannot be planted for 5 to 9 months following simplicity or 10 months following Osprey. The growth regulators (2,4-D, dicamba, MCPA and others) can only be applied up to tillering or the heads could be distorted and yield reduced.

Sharpen
This is a contact, fast acting herbicide similar to Aim or Shark. It will not control grasses and has a preharvest interval of 3 days. Some markets will not accept grain treated with Sharpen so check first.

With spring melon production well under way, PCAs should be on the lookout for Liriomyza leafminers on cantaloupes, honeydews and watermelons. Recent sticky trap catches from our area-wide monitoring network indicate that leafminer adults are becoming quite active and beginning to disperse where melons are being grown. In these trap locations, both Liromyza sativae and L. trifolii were found on traps. This is important because L. trifolii is typically more difficult to control with insecticides. Furthermore, the 10-day forecast calls for temperatures in the 80’s which will enhance leafminer larval development. Leafminers can cause significant economic damage to melon plants, particularly on later planted spring melons. Mining of leaves by the larvae can cause direct injury to seedling plants by removing chlorophyl and reducing the plants photosynthetic capacity. Mines and feeding punctures can also produce an entrance for pathogenic organisms. In severe infestations, leafmining may cause plant death, particularly to seedlings or transplant watermelons. During May and June, excessive leaf mining on older plants can cause leaves to dessicate and defoliate, resulting in sun burning of fruit and reduction in yield and quality. Damage to mature plants can occur when attempting to hold the crop longer for extended harvests. The good news is that several insecticide products are available that can effectively control both leafminer species. Our research has shown that the most effective products are those that work via translaminar activity and can penetrate the leaf surface where they contact or are ingested by the developing larvae. These include Radiant (5-7 oz/ac), Coragen (5-7 oz/ac), Besiege (8-9 oz/ac), Exirel (15-20 oz/ac), Agri-Mek SC (3.5 oz) and Minecto Pro at 10 oz. These compounds can effectively kill newly emerged larvae in the leaf mines before they cause significant damage. Because these products are selective, they have minimal impact on beneficial parasitic wasps that can be important in naturally suppressing leafminer populations. It is recommended that a penetrating adjuvant (e.g., MSO or MSO/Silicone blend) be added to these products to enhance translaminar movement of the product. For more information on leafminer biology and management please go to Leafminer Management on Desert Melons.

Glyphosate:
Do not use on wheat grown for seed. There is a zero tolerance for this herbicide in wheat for export to some countries and it also has the potential to reduce seed germ. This may be an option, however, for grain intended for other uses that is seriously contaminated with weeds. Applying glyphosate too early will damage the crop. There is a preharvest interval of 14 days and this treatment is likely to be slow. Application will have to be by air and drift should be avoided as glyphosate is none selective.

This is the time of year when people start to regret not controlling weeds earlier in wheat. Uncontrolled weeds begin to become more visible and both the crops and weeds are too big for most herbicides. The weeds not only produce millions of little time bombs (seeds) but can contaminate the crop, increase moisture and make harvest difficult. There are some herbicide options at this point, but none are great and all of them can only be applied when the wheat is at least in the hard dough stage and the crop is essentially done.

The Benefits of Organic Agriculture. Charles Benbrook. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Biodiversity and Organic Agriculture, Jim Brandle, University of Nebraska. From Organic Farming Systems Research at the University of Nebraska Webinar.

Participatory Breeding of Wheat, Spelt, Emmer and Einkorn for Organic Farming, Lisa Kissing Kucek, Cornell University. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Hops Production

Updates on Organic Crop Insurance Options for 2020-2021, Haley Baron, Mark Schonbeck Mark Lipson, Organic Farming Research Foundation

Organicology 2015: Selected Live Broadcasts, Crop Rotation and Soil Health, and Seed Intensive Workshops

Effect of Growth, Meat Quality, Profitability, and Consumer Acceptability of Organically Raised Dairy-Beef Steers, Bradley Heins, University of Minnesota. Broadcast at the Organic Agriculture Research Symposium 2015

Using Biofungicides, Biostimulants and Biofertilizers to Boost Crop Productivity and Help Manage Vegetable Diseases, Giuseppe Colla, Tuscia University; Mariateresa Cardarelli, Italian Ministry of Agriculture; Dan Egel, Laurie Hogland, Purdue University

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

The date of introduction into Australia is unknown, but H. grandiflora was documented as a common pasture, roadside and wasteland weed in the lower Hunter Valley of New South Wales in 1987 (Auld and Medd, 1987). In the early 1990s it was discovered on the Gold Coast in southeastern Queensland and, by 1998, was reported as common along roadsides and tracks on coastal sand dunes (Csurhes and Edwards, 1998; Queensland Government, 2013).

Local Common Names

Pollinator exclusion experiments demonstrate that plants are self-compatible, and capable of limited self-pollination, but seed set is improved in field settings (Flint, 1977). Flowers are visited and pollinated by a variety of generalist insects, including bees, beetles, flies and butterflies (Flint, 1977; The Pollinator Partnership and NAPPC, 2008 ).

H. grandiflora was first collected on Maui, Hawaii, USA in 1909 (Wagner et al., 1999). The reasons for its introduction are unknown but it was presumably unintentional because there are no reported ornamental uses or other uses for the plant, and the collection location was in a remote, mountainous area far from human habitation. Subsequent collections were made on the islands of Kahoolawe and Lanai in 1913, Oahu in 1919, Hawaii Island in 1959, Kauai in 1971 and Molokai in 2008 (Bishop Museum, 2015). By 1966, it was reported as a weed of pastures, rangelands and cultivated areas (Haselwood and Motter, 1966).

Within its native range, H. grandiflora is promoted because it is beneficial to native pollinators ( The Pollinator Partnership and NAPPC, 2008 ). Otherwise, there are no reported uses or commercially available sources of this plant and the probability of long-distance intentional or accidental introduction is low.