Fruit flies and other insect pests are prevalent in the tropics and the subtropics. Most soft tropical fruits are prone to infestation by fruit flies. A quarantine treatment approved by the plant quarantine authority of each country must be applied to fruits before they can be exported to noninfested areas. Up until 1984, chemical fumigants such as ethylene dibromide (EDB) were widely used, until tests showed them to be carcinogenic to laboratory animals. Since then, quarantine treatment options are thermal or cold treatment, or irradiation.
Standardization of the export certification process so that uniform and credible certificates with a common format and seal are issued by all phytosanitary certification authorities, both in central and state governments, across the country.
In some countries, areas may be free of the insect-pests that are of phytosanitary concern to the importing country. In the concept of regionalization, importing countries should take into account the situation of the exporting country, particularly the part of their territory that is pest- or disease-free. According to the SPS agreement, the exporting country has to provide necessary evidence of the claimed pest-free or disease-free areas by facilitating inspection and testing. The IPPC has defined the pest-free and disease-free areas in the ‘principles of plant quarantine as related to international trade’. The citrus-exporting country has to declare its areas as insect-free and provide related evidences for smooth trade ( Chapter 18 , part I).
Computerization and networking of all the plant quarantine stations.
Legislation to prevent the spread of already established pests, diseases, and weeds from one part of the country to another (domestic quarantine).
The Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine, and Storage, headed by the Plant Protection Adviser to the government of India, is primarily responsible for enforcing the quarantine rules and regulations framed under the DIP Act in the country. For this purpose, plant quarantine and fumigation stations have been established at various international airports, seaports, and land custom stations where the incoming consignments are inspected, fumigated, or otherwise disinfested/disinfected before release to indenters. Consignments of plants/seeds for sowing/planting/propagation purposes, however, can only be imported through Amritsar, Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, and Madras quarantine stations, where facilities in respect to well-equipped laboratories, quarantine greenhouses and trained scientific and technical manpower are being strengthened to adequately meet the quarantine needs. Quarantine and fumigation stations under the Directorate of Plant Protection, Quarantine & Storage handle bulk imports for commerce and for planting.
Legislation to enforce farmers to apply effective control measures to prevent damage by already established pests.
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Therefore, it is proposed that the Regulations be amended to include an outcome based requirement that prohibits weed seeds in an amount that is known to or would pose a foreseeable risk of harm to animal or plant health or the environment.
The current weed seeds standards outlined in the Regulations have not been updated in more than 30 years and do not reflect the weeds that are of most concern currently or those for which risk has not yet been determined.
Stakeholders are reminded that under the authority of the Plant Protection Act any pests, i.e. any thing that is injurious or potentially injurious, whether directly or indirectly, to plants or to products or by-products of plants including weed seeds, contained on the List of Pests Regulated by Canada would continue to be prohibited from all commodities, including livestock feeds, and would be in addition to any regulatory controls outlined in the Feeds Act and Regulations.
The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has embarked on a comprehensive change agenda to strengthen its foundation of legislation, regulatory programs and inspection delivery. These directions set the context for the renewal of the federal Feeds Regulations (Regulations).