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nightshade weed seeds

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Date and time: Thu, 24 Jun 2021 09:22:38 GMT

Brouillet, L., Coursol, F., Favreau, M. and Anions, M. 2016. VASCAN, the database vascular plants of Canada, http://data.canadensys.net/vascan/ [2016, May 30].

Silverleaf nightshade reproduces by both seed and root fragments. Plants produce up to 250 million seeds per hectare and the seeds can remain viable for up to 10 years (Boyd and Murray 1982 Footnote 5 ). All parts of the plant, especially the fruit, are poisonous to livestock (CABI 2016 Footnote 4 ).

Prohibited Noxious, Class 1 in the Canadian Weed Seeds Order, 2016 under the Seeds Act. All imported and domestic seed must be free of Prohibited Noxious weed seeds.

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Cultivated fields, rangelands, grasslands, forests, coastal areas, marshes, riverbanks, roadsides and other disturbed areas, particularly in areas of low annual rainfall (CABI 2016 Footnote 4 ). Affects a variety of crops, the main ones being alfalfa, citrus, corn, cotton, sorghum and wheat (CABI 2016 Footnote 4 ).

Worldwide: Native to northeastern Mexico and the southwestern United States. Introduced elsewhere in North and South America and currently widespread in the U.S in all but the Great Lakes and New England regions (CFIA 2012 Footnote 2 ). Also introduced to Australia, India, South Africa, and around the Mediterranean basin (CFIA 2014 Footnote 3 ).

Canadian: Absent from Canada (Brouillet et al. 2016 Footnote 1 ).

Boyd, J. W. and Murray, D. S. 1982. Growth and development of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium). Weed Science 30 (3): 238-243.

Flaming: Flaming is effective in controlling small EBN seedlings.

Dispersal Mechanisms: Birds eat EBN berries and disperse the seed over wide distances.

Rotary hoeing: EBN is easily controlled with a rotary hoe when it is less than 1/4 inch in height.

Emerges from soil depths of less than one inch.

Dormancy: EBN is less dormant with the seed is located in the upper inch of the soil profile. As burial depth increases, seed dormancy increases.

Cultural
Crop rotation: EBN is seldom a weed of small grains or forages.

Management:
Biological
Birds and mice predate EBN seed. Thus far little information is available on EBN seed predation by insects.