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jimson weed seed toxicity in cattle

Thi Khieu Oanh Nguyen , . Eric Gontier , in Advances in Botanical Research , 2013

Theuns W. Naudé , in Veterinary Toxicology , 2007

In contrast, in the case of R. graveolens plants, it was possible to cultivate the plant in open field surface of 1 ha. Good quality of biomass was produced containing relatively high levels of FCs, especially in fruits, and the canopy harvest led to the production of 4–12 kg ha − 1 year − 1 of FCs, depending on the cultivation conditions.

Risk Factors

Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Parasympathomimetic or anticholinesterasic (physostigmine and neostigmine) drugs for neutralizing the anticholinergic effects are used and potentially indicated for stupor, coma, seizures, high fever, and severe agitation unresponsive to other treatment. It is necessary to avoid stimulation and maintain a calm environment.

Clinical signs associated with Datura poisoning are similar to those caused by an overdose of atropine. The signs may occur a few moments after ingestion or may not appear for several hours. The poisoning has an acute course in which there is a weak, rapid pulse and heartbeat; disturbances of vision (dilated pupils due to mydriatic effects of Datura); dry mouth; incoordination; convulsions; and coma.

Grain contaminated with Datura seeds

Scopolamine, an alkaloid of Datura and an acetylcholine receptor antagonist, has been reported to impair cognitive performances, especially spatial learning and memory, 52 as well as vigilance. These effects have been known since the eighteenth century when robbers gave to their victims snuff tobacco containing Datura powder to sedate them and obtain anterograde amnesia. Scopolamine exerts an amnesic effect equally in various memory behavioral models. Among pharmaceuticals, many neuroleptics exert anticholinergic properties, particularly H1-antihistaminic. These compounds were primarily modifications of those synthesized as cholinergic antagonists and originate from diverse chemical entities, ethanolamines, ethylene diamines, alkylamines, piperazines, piperidines and phenothiazines. The first-generation antihistamines had poor receptor selectivity and significant unwanted side effects, particularly central nervous system and anticholinergic effects with impaired memory. The residual effects of poor sleep, including impairment of attention, vigilance, working memory and sensory-motor performance, are still present the next morning. 53

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