How Much CBD Oil Can One Plant Produce

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Cannabidiol, abbreviated to CBD, is a cannabinoid. Cannabinoids are compounds found in hemp and colloquially divided into major and minor… Farmers often ask us how much CBD they can expect per acre of hemp. This is no surprise, of course; growing hemp for CBD has become one of the greatest It’s no secret that the CBD industry is booming, but exactly how great is the ROI of hemp farming? How much CBD is produced per acre of hemp, or rather, how much CBD is in hemp oil after extraction? According to a 2020 survey, the average CBD yield was approximately 1,520 pounds per acre, but what does that actually me

How is CBD Extracted from Hemp?

Botanically speaking, hemp is a type of Cannabis sativa (a species of the Cannabis genus) characterized by the presence of high quantities of Cannabidiol (CBD) — a phytocannabinoid that accounts for up to 40% of the plant’s extract with low-to-negligible amounts of THC (typically less than 0.3%).

Types of Cannabis sativa that exhibit higher quantities of THC are classified as simply as “cannabis”.

There are two other species of Cannabis; Indica and Ruderalis, which are both usually simply classified as Cannabis. However due to hemp’s strict classification being based upon the plant’s chemical constituents, technically species of Indica and Ruderalis can be considered Hemp as well.

Sounds confusing? Essentially, they are all species of the Cannabis genus, but the term “hemp” is used to specifically with regards to plants with less than 0.3% THC content.

This definition is due largely in part to the passing of the 2018 Farm Bill which defines hemp as the plant Cannabis sativa L. and any part of the plant with a delta-9 THC concentration of not more than 0.3% by dry weight.

So… What is CBD?

Cannabidiol, abbreviated to CBD, is a Cannabinoid. Cannabinoids are compounds found in cannabis and colloquially divided into “major” and “minor” cannabinoids.

The most notable major cannabinoids are the phyto-cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Delta9-THC or Delta8-THC), the primary psychoactive compound in cannabis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is the major cannabinoid.

But there are at least 144 different cannabinoids isolated from cannabis (at the latest count!) delivering varied effects to the human body. However, the two most prevalent and the two that the plant produces in the highest quantities are Cannabidiol (CBD) and Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).

What part of the Hemp Plant does CBD come from?

So now that we know what CBD is, especially if we intend to extract this valuable cannabinoid, it will be helpful to understand where the CBD is produced on the plant.

Like most woody plants, hemp plants have a sometimes quite large stalk or stem that runs up the entire plant and it has branches like a tree branching out from the main stem. From these branches grow the archetypal fan-type leaves which spread out in odd numbers of 5, 7, and 9, and the colas or buds of the plant.

When we are processing the hemp plant, we can simplify its anatomy into these four categories: stalk, branches, leaves, and buds or colas.

Furthermore, when intending to extract and refine CBD from the hemp plant we are primarily only concerned with the Colas or buds, and the surrounding leaves or trim of the plants. All other plant materials are best to remove because they have little to no CBD and they make the extraction process more difficult and time consuming and less profitable.

On the Colas of the mature hemp plants are what appear to be tiny visible crystals or dew droplets. These are called Trichomes, and these are the glands in which the Cannabinoids like CBD and THC are produced by the plant.

How is CBD Extracted from Hemp?

The first stage of extraction begins at harvest; the removal of the stems and branches from the Colas and Leaves. This process is generally referred to as ‘bucking’ the plant.

After bucking the remaining branches, colas, and leaves are hung to dry.

Once mostly dried, the remaining branches, leaves, and stems are removed in a process called ‘trimming’. This trim, and not the flower, is what is most often extracted, simply because it still contains a considerable number of valuable cannabinoids but costs considerably less to purchase from the farmer then the higher quality buds and flowers.

Next, the plant’s Colas or buds are dried once more to achieve the proper moisture content for storage in a process called ‘curing’. At this point, the flowers are ready to be extracted or sold to consumers for smoking.

Most, but not all (think: Ice Water Hash and Rosin) cannabis and hemp concentrates need a solvent to first extract them from the plant. The most common solvents that are used in CBD extraction include alkanes such as Butane, Propane and Hexane, Carbon dioxide in its super-critical and sub-critical forms, and Ethanol (alcohol).

Each form of CBD extraction has its pros and cons, as well as their similarities.

All the above examples of solvent based extraction (or Solid Phase Extraction) follow the same basic process of submitting the biomass (CBD-rich hemp in this case) to the solvent which dissolves out the desired compounds from the plant material. After which, you have cannabinoid-saturated solvent that needs to be separated from the cannabinoids (and other desired compounds). This separation happens during evaporation during which the solvent is evaporated and removed from the solution, which then goes on to further refinement steps such as distillation and crystallization.

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Along with the more commonly used solvents mentioned above, even coconut oil can be used to extract CBD — taking the place of one of the solvents we talked about above like ethanol or CO2. Coconut oil can be mixed with the plant material (biomass), or with an already-extracted crude from of hemp extract. It is then heated to dissolve the CBD into the coconut oil much like your sugar dissolves into your coffee. Then finally filtered of any residual plant matter.

Coconut oil or olive oil is a great method for small-scale home growers and cooks because it’s easy to do and leaves you with a healthy and edible oil to cook with, easy for dosing! However, vegetable oils oxidize quickly so your resulting CBD oil will need to be used quickly and/or stored in a temperature-controlled environment to ensure shelf-life and freshness.

How much CBD can I extract from one hemp plant?

This question is much more difficult to answer then one would think! This due to the many variables that come into play when attempting to calculate the amount of CBD you can extract from one plant. However, if we make some very lenient assumptions, we can make some very approximate guesses.

First, we’re going to assume your hemp biomass has been bucked, dried, trimmed, and cured properly prior to extraction. If this hasn’t occurred your yields will go down significantly.

Second, we’re going to assume this finished trim or flower contains 10% CBD.

Third, we are going to assume that each of your hemp plants produce 5 lbs. of this finished and cured material per plant.

Lastly, we are going to assume that the extraction facility that is processing your biomass knows what they’re doing! Possibly the biggest variable of all is human error.

  • To produce 1 liter of CBD distillate (or oil) would require approximately 33-5 lbs. of good quality biomass; or about 7 large hemp plants.
  • To produce 1 liter of CBD isolate would require approximately 38-40 lbs. of good quality biomass; or about 8 large hemp plants.

What is the difference between Crude extract and Distillate (oil)?

Lastly, we’d like to briefly define some basic, primary CBD extracts.

A common phrase you’ll often hear when talking about hemp is “CBD oil”. This refers to CBD distillate, a gold-to-amber colored viscous (thick) liquid which tends to be around 85-95% CBD and will crystallize or “sugar” when left at room temperature.

Other forms of CBD include isolate, which is a yellow-to-white powder or crystal that is of very high purity (98-100% pure CBD).

Another form is crude extract, which while less potent than either of the previous forms and ranging widely between 40-70% CBD, has a lot of other compounds (e.g. terpenes) extracted from the hemp which may also have health benefits. This form is usually a black and thick liquid and is almost exclusively used in edibles and topicals.

So, there you have it: the short version of how to extract CBD oil from the hemp plant. Of course, if you have any questions about CBD extraction or CBD extraction equipment please contact us.

How Much CBD Per Acre of Hemp?

Farmers often ask us how much CBD they can expect per acre of hemp. This is no surprise, of course; growing hemp for CBD has become one of the greatest draws of the hemp farming industry. Indeed, CBD is the sweetheart of the hemp industry.

But there is still a lot of guesswork for farmers surrounding the proper way to grow hemp for CBD. There aren’t any industry standards or procedures yet because the industry is still evolving. Moreover, it’s challenging to weigh the cost/benefit of CBD hemp cultivation without understanding how much CBD per acre of hemp one can expect from an average harvest. Today, we hope to settle some confusion regarding the matter.

When Growing Hemp for CBD, Plant Spacing Matters

Planting a successful CBD hemp crop largely depends on plant spacing. CBD hemp plants need plenty of room to grow for multiple reasons (this is in stark contrast to industrial hemp that often grows only a few inches apart).

In the first 60 days of growth, hemp plants nearly double in size. A small 3′ tall x 3′ wide plant can grow up into a 6′ tall x 5′ wide plant in just a couple of months. If there isn’t enough space between the plants when planted, the plants will be too crowded to produce bountiful CBD flowers.

Crowded CBD plants can cause more detrimental problems, as well. For example, hemp is a very labor-intensive crop that requires a lot of hands-on care. Weeding can be a particular problem with hemp because it has to be taken care of by row cultivation or by hoe, which requires ample room to move.

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So how much space should you have in between your hemp plants? This answer will vary depending on the strain, but usually, 4-6 feet between plants is sufficient.

Having a good understanding of your plant’s genetics will help you decide how much space you should provide to each of your CBD hemp seeds. And if you are still unsure, you can always contact us regarding our hemp consulting service. After all, we want you to succeed in hemp farming as much as you do!

Calculating CBD Per Acre of Hemp

The hemp flower contains the highest concentrations of CBD and other cannabinoids. Unfertilized female plants produce the highest cannabinoid concentrations. The average CBD concentration in the flowers of high-quality hemp strains is usually around 10% of the hemp flower’s total dry weight and typically sells for about $300-$450/pound. The remainder of the plant (the stems, leaves, seeds, etc.) is biomass and sells for around $30-$75/pound.

There is a good equation you can use to determine how much CBD per acre of hemp you can expect from your next harvest. First, determine how much CBD is in the flower mass of one plant by taking the weight of the flower mass and dividing it by 10%, the percentage of CBD found in the flowers.

For example, if someone cultivated 3 lbs of flower mass from each plant:

3 lbs of flower mass x .1 = .3 lbs of CBD per flower

Once you have this number, you take the amount of CBD per flower and multiply it by the number of plants per acre. So if someone cultivated 2,500 plants per acre, the equation would look like this:

.3 lbs of CBD per flower x 2,500 plants per acre = 750 pounds of CBD per acre of hemp

This equation should provide accurate results given that the crop is raised ideally to ensure maximum CBD production.

Tips for Maintaining a Compliant Hemp Crop

While the federal regulations surrounding compliant hemp crops can be daunting, there are some ways that you can work to control THC spikes in your hemp crop while keeping CBD levels high.

First, make sure to test your hemp plants early and frequently. A great way to catch variations in your cannabinoid levels is by checking them early and often so you can correct and adjust as needed. This process can also show you the things that you are doing right if the CBD levels are thriving and high.

Providing a low-stress environment for hemp is a crucial step in keeping CBD levels high and THC levels low. When hemp plants grow in stressful environments — extreme temperatures and excessive exposure to UV rays, for example — they might produce THC as a way to protect themselves from the stressful situation. But when hemp grows in mild, favorable environments, THC levels should remain low, and the amount of CBD per acre of hemp should stay high.

Ensuring that you have quality, feminized hemp seeds from the beginning also helps ensure that your end crop is high in CBD. Find a reputable dealer who provides high-quality, feminized hemp seeds, and you can have much more assurance going into your growing season that your crop will succeed.

Conclusion

Hemp farmers rejoice! You can still maintain high levels of CBD per acre of hemp without high THC levels. Just practice best hemp cultivation practices like well-spaced plants and a stress-free growing environment. We promise, your hemp plants will gift you with their gratitude if you do.

What tips do you have for growing a high CBD crop? We would love to hear your suggestions in the comments below!

How Much CBD is Produced Per Acre of Hemp?

It’s no secret that the CBD industry is booming, but exactly how great is the ROI of hemp farming? How much CBD is produced per acre of hemp, or rather, how much CBD is in hemp oil after extraction?

According to a 2020 survey, the average CBD yield was approximately 1,520 pounds per acre, but what does that actually mean?

In order to get some final numbers regarding how much CBD you can get from an acre of hemp, we need to break hemp farming down into three numbers: how many hemp plants you can grow on one acre of farmland, how much hemp oil product those plants will produce, and how much CBD is actually in the hemp oil.

Key Takeaways

  • The amount of CBD produced from one acre of hemp varies greatly depending on the CBD concentration in the hemp material, the extraction methods used, farming efficiency, and more.
  • In general, you can expect to get one pound of crude CBD oil from each hemp plant, which can then be refined further to create a final product.
  • The amount of CBD products you can create from an acre of hemp depends on the potency of each product and the formula needed.

How Much Hemp Can Be Grown Per Acre?

In general, you can grow roughly 1,500 to 3,000 hemp plants per acre depending on the size of the hemp cultivar you choose and the space between each hemp plant. Adequate sunlight is crucial for CBD production, so it’s recommended that hemp plants are spaced between 3 and 5 feet apart.

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Hemp is incredibly versatile and can be used to make paper, textiles, building materials, food products, and, of course, CBD products. The type of product you intend to make determines the type of hemp you’ll need to grow and how much hemp you can grow on an acre of land.

To produce CBD, you’ll need to grow female hemp plants because only female plants produce flowers, and the flower is the richest source of cannabinoids like CBD. You’ll also want to grow a strain of hemp designed for CBD production (as opposed to industrial hemp, which is typically farmed for its fiber or oil content).

Flowering hemp plants generally need more space and sunlight than male plants, so you may find your total capacity for hemp to be on the lighter end, around 1,500 plants per acre.

In a 2018 trial run by the Northwest Crops and Soil Program at the University of Vermont, a single hemp plant spaced 5 by 5 feet apart weighed 9.11 pounds on average. That means that one acre of land can yield approximately 13,665 pounds of hemp biomass that can be used to produce hemp CBD oil.

How Much CBD Oil Can Be Produced From One Hemp Plant?

The answer to this one is pretty complicated because the factors regarding CBD content in hemp can vary greatly. On average, one hemp plant will make approximately one pound of crude oil, or a raw oil product that hasn’t been fully refined.

Crude hemp oil contains CBD and many other plant compounds, like other cannabinoids and terpenes, as well as plant materials that may need to be removed to improve the taste and texture of the final oil.

Of course, our “one pound” estimate is just that—an estimate. The actual amount of crude CBD oil you will get from one single hemp plant depends on various factors, including the:

  • size and quality of each plant
  • soil quality and farming methods used
  • original CBD potency in the hemp cultivar you chose
  • extraction method used (read more about Hemp and CBD Extraction Techniques to learn more)
  • efficiency of extraction (how much product is lost during production)
  • type of hemp product used (biomass vs flower-only extractions)

How Much CBD is in Hemp Oil?

As we mentioned, the initial oil produced from hemp is a crude oil, or an unrefined product that contains an array of plant compounds. Crude oil can be sold wholesale to manufacturers, but it needs to be refined if you intend to create a “final product” like a CBD tincture or gummy.

The amount of CBD in the final oil depends on varying factors, like the CBD concentration in the original plant material, the refinement methods used, and the desired resulting product.

For instance, if you aim to produce full spectrum CBD oil, or a CBD product that contains an array of hemp-derived cannabinoids and terpenes, you’ll be able to produce significantly more from the same amount of crude oil than if you were to make CBD isolate, a pure form of CBD.

Some refinement methods are more efficient than others, but the largest discrepancy is in the potency of the original crude oil. Because CBD potency can range from 3-20% in different hemp cultivars, the CBD potency in the crude oil can also range from 20-75%. Because of these huge discrepancies between hemp crops, it’s impossible to say how much CBD you will get from a single hemp plant or an acre of hemp, but we can make general estimates:

Conclusion: How Much CBD is Produced Per Acre of Hemp Plants?

If you add all of the above factors up, you’ll find that one acre of hemp can produce roughly 1,500 hemp plants, or roughly 1,500 pounds of crude oil. The amount of CBD available depends on the total potency in the original material, but crude oil may contain around 50-65% CBD. On the higher end, this means that you can produce around 975 pounds of CBD oil from one acre of hemp.

Keep in mind that there are numerous factors that affect the CBD yield from an acre of hemp, and it is ultimately impossible to predict how much CBD you can produce from hemp. In perfect conditions, farmers have reported much higher yields than suggested above, while others have suggested that they pulled nearly half that amount from a full acre of hemp.

The answer to “how much CBD is produced per acre of hemp” truly depends on the details, starting with the potency of the hemp cultivar and the soil quality and ending with the particular refinement methods used during production. Over time, hemp producers can gain a better understanding of their CBD yields and improve production rates, allowing them to make better predictions about their CBD yields from crop to crop.

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