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control wind carrying the seed weeds

30644 grains/m2 and ecological dominance at 0.51

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0.81. The diversity index show a relatively low value – the highest Shannon-Wener value is 1.78. The similarity coefficients between SSB and aboveground vegetation are low as well, the lowest value is 0.21. Vertical distribution demonstrates significantly obvious condition with 0-5cm layer having the most species.

Soil Disturbance – Minimise the amount of soil and vegetation disturbance when carrying out work. Disturbed ground creates an ideal seed bed for both existing and introduced weed seeds to germinate.

Water And Wind – Wet seeds entering waterways or drains can be spread to new areas downstream. On windy days when plants are seeding, the wind can easily disperse the seed quite some distance. Many weed species have seeds especially adapted to be carried by the wind.

Garden Escapees – Many weeds were introduced to Australia as ornamental plants or for herbal medicine, which have since “escaped” from our gardens and become wild. For example – pampas grass, broom, Spanish heath and cotoneaster. It is best to avoid “weedy” species when choosing plants for your garden.

Humans And Animals – Check your own clothing, socks, cuffs, jumpers, boots etc. after walking through weed-infested areas. Remove and destroy and seeds you find. Dogs and cats can also disturb seeds in their coats, as can wild animals, particularly vermin such as foxes and rabbits. Birds also transport seeds when they feed on wet fruits and seeds such as blackberry and cotoneaster.

Machinery – After using machinery in weed-infested areas ensure they are thoroughly cleaned. Weed seed can be transported in tyres and in other road materials.

Stock Feed – Contamination of hay and grains with wet seeds is one of the most common means by which weeds are spread. Feeding animals in a confined area or in one paddock reduces the risk of weeds invading the rest of the property.

Stock – Weed seeds ingested by stock can remain viable after passing through the digestive tract. New stock should therefore be confined to one paddock for a week after arrival. This allows time for any viable seeds that have been ingested by the stock to be expelled. Seeds which are sticky or spiny can spread on the animals, for example in sheep fleece.