The Weed program at the Rice Experiment Station (RES) in Biggs conducts herbicide resistance testing for the major rice herbicides used in California. This information helps growers improve their weed control programs if resistance is confirmed, and also helps the rice industry as a whole to keep track of resistance issues.
Sprangletop and smallflower umbrella sedge seeds are the first weed seeds to mature. If you suspect herbicide resistance, bring seeds of these weeds to the RES to be tested, together with the Resistant Weed Testing form available here. Follow the guidelines below to ensure that enough seed of the right species is collected. Later in the year we’ll update these guidelines to include ricefield bulrush and watergrass.
General guidelines to collect suspected herbicide resistant weed seeds:
If you suspect herbicide resistance, collect seeds of the target weed, and fill out the resistant weed seed testing form available online at http://cecolusa.ucanr.edu/newsletters/Rice_Briefs_Newsletter58741.pdf. Bring these to your local UC rice farm advisor, or send or drop off at the RES for testing.
Resistance occurs after the same herbicides have been used repeatedly at the same site for several years. You will notice a gradual decline in the efficacy of the herbicide to control weeds that were once susceptible.
Weed seed collection
2 – Collect mature seeds that dislodge easily from the seedhead. In general, sprangletop matures the earliest, between rice panicle initiation and heading. Early watergrass, barnyardgrass, smallflower umbrellasedge, and ricefield bulrush usually follow, maturing sometime before rice heading until maturity. Late watergrass matures last, at about the same time early rice varieties (M-205, M-206) mature.
3 – Collect seeds, not seedheads. Gently shake the seedhead inside a paper bag. Seeds that shatter are mature and will readily germinate. If seedheads are collected, seeds might not be mature or might have shattered already
5 – Make sure to collect enough seed. In order to have conclusive results, several replications of herbicide resistance testing are needed. When not enough seed is provided, replications may not be possible.
Avoiding conditions that allow pests to adapt and thrive in a particular ecosystem helps to identify weak links in the pests’ life cycle and therefore what factors can be manipulated to manage them. Retaining natural ecosystems such that predators and natural enemies of pests and diseases are kept in abundance can also help keep pest numbers down.
Harvesting can be done manually or mechanically:
The rice plant has a wide array of ‘enemies’ in the field. These include rodents, harmful insects, viruses, diseases, and weeds. Farmers manage weeds through water management and land preparation, by hand weeding, and in some cases herbcide application. Understanding the interactions among pests, natural enemies, host plants, other organisms, and the environment allows farmers to determine what if any pest management may be necessary.
Seed is a living product that must be grown, harvested, and processed correctly in order to realize the yield potential of any rice variety. Good quality seed can increase yields by 5-20%. Using good seed leads to lower seeding rates, higher crop emergence, reduced replanting, more uniform plant stands, and more vigorous early crop growth. Vigorous growth in early stages reduces weed problems and increases crop resistance to insect pests and diseases. All of these factors contribute to higher yields and more productive rice farms.
Good seed is pure (of the chosen variety), full and uniform in size, viable (more than 80% germination with good seedling vigor), and free of weed seeds, seed-borne diseases, pathogens, insects, or other matter.
The two main practices of establishing rice plants are transplanting and direct seeding.
Transplanting is the most popular plant establishment technique across Asia. Pre- germinated seedlings are transferred from a seedbed to the wet field. It requires less seed and is an effective method to control weeds, but requires more labor. Seedlings may be transplanted by either machine or hand.