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caragreenan seed weed

In this research, anti-infestation activities of carrageenan were observed, the infestation of C. campestris to basil plant treated with carrageenan decreased by about 26%; therefore, spraying of carrageenans significantly increased the resistance of basil plants to C. campestris invasion and carrageenan-treated basil plants attracted fewer C. campestris as compared to the control.

C. campestris grew and attached itself to basil plants. Already one day after C. campestris inoculation of plants, the attached threadlike stems began twining around basil shoots. After establishing C. campestris on host shoot, the twinned stem developed haustoria and penetrated the host tissue to draw water and nourishment. Dodder stem twined itself in counter-clock wise direction tightly around the stem of host plant and grew upward. After two weeks of C. campestris infestation, by debilitating and inhibiting the host plants growth, the shoot length and leaf area of basil plants decreased significantly. The carrageenan treatment significantly increased the growth parameters (shoot length and leaf area) in comparison with carrageenan untreated set of basil. Therefore, it seems that the foliar application of carrageenan significantly alleviated the negative effect of parasite (C. campestris) on growth of infested host plants (Table 1). In the present study, we observed that infestation percentage of C. campestris to basils which were not treated with carrageenan was 60.48%, but in carrageenan-treated basil plants recorded a significantly lower attachment of C. campestris, which were 33.93%. These findings showed that infestation of C. campestris to basil plant treated with carrageenan decreased by about 26% (Table 1).

The height of a plant is the vertical distance from the soil at its base to the shoot tip (apical meristem) in their natural position. The height of the basil plants in its natural position was measured.

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The content of malondialdehyde, other aldehydes and H2O2 and the LOX activity increased remarkably in basil plants that were parasitized by C. campestris (Figures 1 –4). Carrageenan treatment of basil plants caused a significant increase in H2O2 content (Figure 3). But, between carrageenan-treated and untreated basil plants, no significant differences could be noticed in the malondialdehyde and other aldehyde contents and LOX activity (Figures 1, 2 and 4). Carrageenan treatment of basil plants parasitized by dodder caused a decrease in contents of malondialdehyde and other aldehydes and LOX activity (Figures 1, 2 and 4).

Enzyme activity analyses revealed that PAL, CAT and GPX activities in basil were elevated after infestation by dodder (Figures 5, 7 and 9). Significantly enhanced activities of PAL, CAT and SOD enzymes were observed in carrageenan-treated basil plants compared to control plants (Figures 5, 7 and 8). Moreover, carrageenan treatment of basil parasitized by dodder caused a significant increase in the activity of PAL, PPO, CAT, SOD and GPX, but not of APX activity (Figures 5 –10).

For analysis of defense against C. campestris invasion and measuring of infestation of basil plants by C. campestris, the percentage of C. campestris tight coupling (stem attachment and its haustorium penetration) to basil shoot was determined 14 days after the infection.

(CAT; EC activity was determined according to the modified method of Dhindsa et al. ( 1981 ). The decline in absorbance at 240 nm due to decline of extinction of H2O2 was recorded. The assay mixture consisted of a 50 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0), 15 mM H2O2 and 100 µL of the enzyme extract. The activity was calculated using ε = 40 mM −1 cm −1 . One U of CAT activity was defined as the amount of enzyme that decomposed 1 µmol of H2O2 per minute. The enzyme activity was expressed in U per milligram protein (= 1 µM of H2O2 reduction min −1 mg −1 protein).

6 to 12 months old: Sprinkle a pinch of hulled hemp seeds or protein powder on soft foods like yogurt and roll “slippery” foods like avocado, mango, or pineapple in hulled hemp seeds, which will help with grip. Hemp seed oil can also be mixed into mashed potatoes and warm cereals and easily worked into pesto sauces.

For more information on how to cut food for babies, visit our page on Food Sizes & Shapes.

Every baby develops on their own timeline. The preparation suggestions below are for informational purposes only and are not a substitute for professional, one-on-one advice from your pediatric medical or health professional, nutritionist or dietitian, or expert in pediatric feeding and eating. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read or seen here.

Recipe: Strawberry-Hemp Seed Smoothie

No, though it is not unheard of. As you would when introducing any new food, start by offering a scant quantity for the first couple of servings. If there is no adverse reaction, gradually increase the quantity over future servings.

Nutritionally, hemp seeds are a complete protein, which means that they have all the essential amino acids that your baby’s body needs to thrive. They are also a great source of critical essential nutrients: copper, fiber, selenium, vitamins A and B6, and zinc.

Yes! Hemp seeds and hemp seed oil are terrific ingredients to add nutritional value to your baby’s diet and to help with that ever-present challenge: constipation.

Hulled hemp seeds (also called hemp heart seeds) and hemp seed oil may be introduced as soon as your baby is ready to start solids, which is generally around 6 months of age. It is best to wait until after your baby’s first birthday, however, to offer hemp seed milk as a drink (cooking with it is fine) as it is important that cow milk and milk alternatives do not displace breast milk or formula in the first year of life.