Discover the complete plant life cycle of the cannabis plant to further your knowledge of marijuana trimming and production. Cannabis sativa L. (hemp, marijuana) produces male and female inflorescences on different plants (dioecious). In commercial production, marijuana plants are all genetically female and male plants are undesired. On occasion, spontaneously occurring hermaphroditic inflorescences, which are pistillate flowers accompanied by spontaneous production of anthers, can lead to undesired seed formation. We studied hermaphroditism in marijuana strains with the objective of describing the morphological features of this unique phenotype. We also hypothesized that hermaphroditism would impact progeny sex ratios and affect genetic diversity. Anthers were collected from hermaphroditic inflorescences that were observed in three commercial female strains (genotypes). The morphological features, pollen production and germination were compared to staminate inflorescences on male plants using light and scanning electron microscopy. Seeds from hermaphroditic plants were harvested, germinated and seedlings were tested for gender using a PCR-based assay. The genetic variation among seedlings derived from hermaphroditic seeds was also compared to that derived from cross-fertilized seeds using six ISSR primers. Nei’s index of gene diversity and Shannon’s Information index were calculated for hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized populations. The morphology of anthers in hermaphroditic inflorescences was found to be similar to that in staminate flowers. In PCR assays, female and male seedlings both produced a 540 bp size fragment, while a 390 bp band was present only in male plants. Seedlings from hermaphroditic seeds, as well as anther tissues, were all observed to have the female banding pattern. In comparison, seedlings derived from cross-fertilized seeds yielded a male:female expression ratio of approximately 1:1 in two different strains of marijuana. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 44% to 72% in hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized populations. Nei’s index of gene diversity and Shannon’s Information index were similar for both populations. Uniquely, hermaphroditic inflorescences produce seeds which give rise only to genetically female plants. The extent of genetic variation after one generation of selfing was similar to that among progeny from cross-fertilized seeds. The presence of Copia-like retrotransposons within the C. sativa genome was established through sequence comparisons of the 540 bp fragment. Their functions or association with the expression of male or female phenotype requires further study. Many growers have been surprised by the presence of hermaphrodite plants in their marijuana crops. In this post we will tell you how to detect them an
From Seed to Bud: The Plant Life Cycle of Cannabis
The popularity of marijuana plants is rife at different angles. However, it is the simple life cycle that makes the herb unique. From a seed into a mature bud, the cycle is one of the easiest to master. Below is a breakdown of how the plant grows until it reaches maturity.
The life of a cannabis plant starts immediately when the seed is sown into the ground. The rate of germination of the seed depends on the conditions it is exposed to. First, if the seed is watered regularly, it germinates at a fast pace. Colour and texture determine the quality of the seed, and to a great extent, the time it takes to germinate.
A healthy seed should be dry and hard. It should also have a dark-brown color. It is advisable to avoid sowing seeds that are white or green since the probability of germinating is negligible. High-quality cannabis seeds take between five to ten days to sprout.
The Seedling Stage
The seedling stage in cannabis takes place immediately after the seeds germinate. A standard cannabis seedling should have leaves containing a single-ridged blade. During the growth stage, the cannabis plant should be green.
During the seedling stage, it is advisable to reduce the rate of watering to protect their delicate stems. Besides, the risk of the plant developing mold and getting diseases is also higher during the seedling stage.
The seedling should be watered after two days. Overwatering the seedlings is a common mistake many growers make, which might affect the time taken for the cannabis to grow and develop. Also, the seedling should be kept in an area with free circulation of air and sunlight. This allows the chlorophyll to form and crucial cannabinoids to accumulate in the leaves.
If the right conditions are adhered to, the seedling stage should take between two and three weeks. Most importantly, the seedling stage should also be exposed to a source of light for at least 18 hours a day. Sunlight is the most common source of light used by cannabis seedlings. However, the sophistication in technology has led to the improvisation of LED lights, which provide the same light properties as the sunlight.
The vegetative stage is considered the time when the marijuana plant starts to mature. During the phase, the leaves become full, and the stems sturdier. The rate of growth also hastens, giving the plant a bushy appearance.
During the vegetative stage, it is advisable to transfer the plant to a place where it will attain the full size. In addition, the watering style should be changed. In this case, the water should be poured further from the stalk to protect the roots from being exposed. The stage takes approximately three to sixteen weeks and requires about 18 hours of light.
During the flowering stage, buds start to form on the cannabis plant. It is also during this stage that the sex of the plant begins to manifest. Once the male parts have been identified, they can be separated to prevent them from germinating the female ones.
The formation of buds is more prevalent in week 6 and 7 in the cycle. It is also advisable to avoid pruning leaves and branches two weeks before the marijuana starts to produce flower buds.
During this phase, the plant should be watered less, and the plant exposed less to light. The plant should receive less than 12 hours of sunlight in a day. Less exposure to light allows the cannabinoid levels in the plant to increase. The rate of watering during this stage should be lower.
Once the buds have matured, harvesting can take place. It involves plucking the branches from the plant and hanging them to allow excess moisture to evaporate. It is also during harvesting that bud trimming takes place. This consists of removing fan leaves from the buds together with sugar leaves. However, the removal of sugar leaves from the buds is less common since they contain a high amount of THC. Once the marijuana trimming has taken place, the seeds can be prepared for planting again.
Industry Leading Customer Support
12 hours a day, 7 days a week
With over a decade leading the industry, we stand behind the quality and craftsmanship of our equipment, and offer top-tier tech support available.
Hermaphroditism in Marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) Inflorescences – Impact on Floral Morphology, Seed Formation, Progeny Sex Ratios, and Genetic Variation
Cannabis sativa L. (hemp, marijuana) produces male and female inflorescences on different plants (dioecious) and therefore the plants are obligatory out-crossers. In commercial production, marijuana plants are all genetically female; male plants are destroyed as seed formation reduces flower quality. Spontaneously occurring hermaphroditic inflorescences, in which pistillate flowers are accompanied by formation of anthers, leads to undesired seed formation; the mechanism for this is poorly understood. We studied hermaphroditism in several marijuana strains with three objectives: (i) to compare the morphological features of this unique phenotype with normal male flowers; (ii) to assess pollen and seed viability from hermaphroditic flowers; and (iii) to assess the effect of hermaphroditism on progeny male:female (sex) ratios and on genetic variation using molecular methods. The morphological features of anthers, pollen production and germination in hermaphroditic flowers and in staminate inflorescences on male plants were compared using light and scanning electron microscopy. Seeds produced on hermaphroditic plants and seeds derived from cross-fertilization were germinated and seedlings were compared for gender ratios using a PCR-based assay as well as for the extent of genetic variation using six ISSR primers. Nei’s index of gene diversity and Shannon’s Information index were compared for these two populations. The morphology of anthers and pollen formation in hermaphroditic inflorescences was similar to that in staminate flowers. Seedlings from hermaphroditic seeds, and anther tissues, showed a female genetic composition while seedlings derived from cross-fertilized seeds showed a 1:1 male:female sex expression ratio. Uniquely, hermaphroditic inflorescences produced seeds which gave rise only to genetically female plants. In PCR assays, a 540 bp size fragment was present in male and female plants, while a 390 bp band was uniquely associated with male plants. Sequence analysis of these fragments revealed the presence of Copia-like retrotransposons within the C. sativa genome which may be associated with the expression of male or female phenotype. In ISSR analysis, the percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 44 to 72% in hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized populations. Nei’s index of gene diversity and Shannon’s Information index were not statistically different for both populations. The extent of genetic variation after one generation of selfing in the progeny from hermaphroditic seed is similar to that in progeny from cross-fertilized seeds.
Cannabis sativa L. (hemp, marijuana), a member of the family Cannabaceae, is a diploid (2n = 20) outcrossing plant which produces male and female inflorescences on different plants (dioecious). Dioecy is proposed to have evolved from a hermaphrodite ancestor in angiosperms and is found in about 6% of all angiosperm plant species (Renner and Ricklefs, 1995). It has been proposed that dioecy is a basic evolutionary mechanism to ensure cross-fertilization and, as a consequence, results in maintenance of high genetic diversity and heterozygosity (Dellaporta and Calderon-Urrea, 1993; Hamrick and Godt, 1996; Ainsworth, 2000). In dioecious plants, sex determination is governed by several factors: sex-determining genes and sex chromosomes, epigenetic control by DNA methylation and microRNA’s, and physiological regulation by phytohormones (Aryal and Ming, 2014; Heikrujam et al., 2015; Bai et al., 2019). Sexual dimorphism is expressed at very early stages of organ initiation or specification, with differential expression of genes in male and female tissues (Moliterni et al., 2004). Sex determining chromosomes have been reported in 40 angiosperm species, with 34 species having the XY system which includes C. sativa (Ming et al., 2011; Aryal and Ming, 2014). In this species, the karyotype consists of nine autosomes and a pair of sex chromosomes (X and Y) (Sakamoto et al., 1998). Female plants are homogametic (XX) and males are heterogametic (XY), with sex determination controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system (Ming et al., 2011). The estimated size of the haploid genome of C. sativa is 818 Mb for female plants and 843 Mb for male plants, owing to the larger size of the Y chromosome (Sakamoto et al., 1998). The development of molecular markers linked with sex expression in hemp was described in earlier work by Sakamoto et al. (1995, 2005), Mandolino et al. (1999), and Moliterni et al. (2004). Similar studies on marijuana are described in Punja et al. (2017).
Marijuana plants are grown commercially for their psychoactive compounds, which are produced in the trichomes that develop on flower bracts in female inflorescences (Andre et al., 2016). On occasion, it has been observed that hermaphroditic inflorescences can develop spontaneously (Small, 2017). These plants produce predominantly female inflorescences, but anthers (ranging from a few to many) may develop within the leaf axils or in pistillate flower buds. These hermaphroditic inflorescences can be induced by exogenous applications of different chemicals (Ram and Jaiswal, 1970, 1972; Ram and Sett, 1981), and by environmental stresses (Rosenthal, 1991; Kaushal, 2012), suggesting that external triggers and epigenetic factors may play a role. The hermaphrodite plants are functionally monoecious due to their ability to undergo self-pollination, but the impact of self-fertilization on progeny sex ratios and on genetic variation in the subsequent progeny has not been previously studied.
There are no previously published reports which describe the morphology of hermaphroditic inflorescences in marijuana plants. In the present study, we describe the morphological features of this unique phenotype. Anther formation, pollen production and germination were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. We also describe for the first time the effect of hermaphroditic seed formation on the resulting female:male sex ratio using a PCR-based gender identification method. We assessed the extent of genetic variation in the progeny from self-fertilized seeds and compared that to seed derived from cross-fertilization using inter-simple sequence repeats or microsatellites (ISSR) markers. This study is the first to characterize the outcome of hermaphroditism in C. sativa. The results have an important bearing on the utility of hermaphrodites for the production of feminized (selfed) seed in the cannabis industry.
Materials and Methods
Plant Growth Conditions
Three strains of marijuana – “Moby Dyck,” “Space Queen,” and “Lemon Nigerian” – were cultivated in a commercial indoor growing facility according to the regulations and guidelines issued by Health Canada under an MMPR – Marihuana for Medical Purposes – license. The plants were initiated from rooted cuttings and provided with the nutrient regime for hydroponic culture as described elsewhere (Punja and Rodriguez, 2018). Lighting, temperature and growth conditions were provided in accordance with industry production standards to ensure pistillate inflorescence development (Small, 2017). The plants were first maintained in the vegetative stage for 2 weeks at a temperature range of 23–26°C with a 24 h photoperiod under a light intensity of 120 μmol m –2 s –1 . They were subsequently transferred into a flowering room for an additional 6–7 weeks to induce pistillate inflorescence development under a modified photoperiod regime that consisted of reduced lighting duration and intensity (10 h photoperiod and 70 μmol m–2 s –1 light intensity) (Figures 1A,B).
Figure 1. The production system for marijuana plants based on vegetatively propagated plants that are first grown under a 24 h photoperiod for 4 weeks and then switched to a 12 h dark:12 h light regime. (A) The plants have just been “flipped” to the reduced lighting regime following vegetative growth. (B) Development of large terminal inflorescence clusters in strain “Hash Plant” that extend to a 1 m height above the canopy. (C–K) Sequential progression of development of pistillate inflorescences on female plants of marijuana grown under indoor conditions. (C) Young terminal inflorescence with white hair-like stigmas. (D) More advanced inflorescence with yellowish-white clusters of stigmas. The stigmas are bifurcate at the tips. (E) Fully developed inflorescence. (C–E) Are of strain “Hash Plant.” (F–H) Are of strain “Purple God” that produces anthocyanin pigmentation. (F) Young terminal inflorescence with developing hair-like stigmas. (G) More advanced inflorescence with yellowish-white clusters of stigmas. Subtending bracts have accumulated a purple pigment. H) Fully developed inflorescence. (I–K) Show stages of maturation of inflorescence. Maturation is characterized by the curling and browning/reddening of the stigmas and swelling of the carpels. (I) Early. (J) Mid. (K) Late. This flower bud is close to harvest and the carpels have swollen.
Female Inflorescence Development
The sequential development of the female inflorescence in marijuana strains is illustrated in Figure 1. At the early stages of development, the clusters of pistils with protruding stigmas on terminal inflorescences were yellowish-white in color (Figures 1C–E). In some strains where pigmentation was a characteristic feature, the pistils and surrounding bract tissues developed a red or purple pigmentation (Figures 1F–H). With further maturation of the inflorescence, the stigmas shriveled and developed a brown-red color, while the ovules and surrounding bracts swelled and were covered by glandular trichomes that imparted a silvery-white appearance (Figures 1I–K).
Hermaphrodite Inflorescence Development
During the 6–7 weeks flowering period of strains grown under commercial conditions, female inflorescences were examined at weekly intervals visually with the aid of a hand lens for the development of male anthers within the inflorescence (Figure 2). Around 1,000 plants in total were examined over the course of two repeated cycles of plant production in the study. Individual clusters of anthers appeared bright yellow and measured 2–3 mm in length (Figures 2A–D) and were formed within the bract tissues and surrounded by stigmas. In some cases, the entire female inflorescence was converted to a mass of anthers which emerged through the bracts (Figure 3). They were carefully removed with a pair of forceps, placed inside plastic petri dishes lined with moistened filter paper, and transported to the laboratory for microscopic examination. Scanning electron microscopic observations of anthers and pollen grains were made following preparation of the samples according to the procedure described by Punja et al. (2019). Pollen grains were released from anthers by suspending them in 5 ml of sterile distilled water for 2 min, from which 50 μl were plated onto 1% water agar (Bacto, Difco) and incubated at 23–25°C for 24–48 h. Percent emergence of pollen tubes was rated from 100 grains examined under an inverted compound light microscope (Zeiss). The experiment was conducted twice. In instances where seed formation was observed in the inflorescences of the three strains, they were collected at fruit maturity, counted, and set aside. Germination of a sample of 20 seeds from each strain was induced by placing them in a moist cocofibre:vermiculite (3:1, v/v) potting medium and incubating at 23–25°C for 20 days under supplemental lighting. The seedling tissues (young leaves), as well as anther tissues from hermaphroditic flowers, were used for DNA extraction (minimum of 15 seedlings per strain) as described below.
Figure 2. Male anthers and pollen production in hermaphroditic inflorescences of Cannabis sativa. (A) Formation of anthers within calyx tissues of female inflorescences of strain “Moby Dyck” grown under commercial conditions. (B,C) Close-up of clusters of anthers formed within the calyx tissues adjacent to the brown stigmas. (D) Pollen production and release from anthers along the line of dehiscence that appears as a longitudinal groove (stomium).
Figure 3. The spontaneous conversion of a female inflorescence to produce anthers. (A) Initial clusters of anthers forming within the calyx that normally surrounds the ovary. (B) Advanced stage of development of anthers in large clusters on the same plant shown in (A,C,D) Close-up of masses of anthers replacing the female inflorescence. (E,F) Mature anthers that have become dried. Figure (F) shows the prominent “banana-shaped” morphology. The transition from (A–F) occurs over 3 weeks.
Male Inflorescence Development
To examine the course of development of staminate flowers in genetically male plants, seeds of strains “Moby Dyck,” “Blue Deity,” and “Sweet Durga” were provided by a commercial seed producer which were produced from a controlled cross-fertilization cross. Seeds were placed in a moist cocofibre:vermiculite (3:1, v/v) potting medium and incubated at 23–25°C for 20 days under supplemental lighting as before. At least 20 seeds were germinated and 15 seedlings were obtained for each strain. The seedling tissues were used for DNA extraction as described below. The plants were grown for an additional 4 weeks under a 24 h/day photoperiod until staminate inflorescences were produced. These appeared as characteristic clusters of anthers followed by release of pollen (Figure 6). Individual clusters of anthers were carefully removed with a pair of forceps and brought to the laboratory for microscopic examination for the presence of pollen grains and for DNA extraction. In addition, scanning electron microscopic observations of anther and pollen morphology were made following preparation of the samples according to the procedure described above. To observe pollen grain germination and pollen tube growth on stigmas, pollen was manually collected from male flowers of strain “Sweet Durga” by tapping flowers gently over a piece of wax paper. The pollen was dusted onto pistillate inflorescences of strain “White Rhino” which had been collected the previous day, excised and placed in a humid chamber. A minimum of five replicate samples were included. After 72 h, tissue samples (n = 5) were prepared for scanning electron microscopy and germ tube production and growth on the stigmas that bore receptive papillae was determined at various magnifications from a minimum of 25 images.
DNA Extraction, PCR, and Sequencing
DNA was extracted from leaf or anther samples using the Qiagen DNeasy ® Plant Mini Kit (cat. 69104, Hilden, Germany). The Quick-Start Protocol was performed with the following modifications: the tissues were ground in a microfuge tube with liquid nitrogen using a microfuge tube-sized pestle and 50 μl of Buffer AE was used to elute the DNA. Extracted DNA served as the template in PCR reactions using primers SFU1 (5′ GTGACGTAGGTAGAGTTGAA 3′) and SFU2 (5′ GTGACGTAGGCTATGAGAG 3′), the Qiagen Taq PCR Core Kit (cat. 201223), and Taq DNA Polymerase (cat. 201203). The PCR primers were designed from the MADC2 sequence from hemp (GenBank Accession No. JN426768.1) at positions 1–20 and 373–391, as per Mandolino et al., 1999). PCR conditions were as follows: one cycle of 94°C for 3 min, 40 cycles of 94°C for 30 s – 55°C for 45 s – 72°C for 2 min, one cycle of 72°C for 7 min, and hold at 4°C. The primers amplified a 540 bp sized DNA fragment in female plants, while in male plants, either two bands of 390 and 540 bp in size were produced, or just the 390 bp band was amplified (Punja et al., 2017). The 540 bp bands from the female plant samples were purified from their respective PCR reactions using NEB’s Monarch PCR & DNA Cleanup Kit (#T1030S, New England Biolabs, Toronto, Canada). The 540 and 390 bp bands from the male plant samples were separated on a 1% agarose gel then excised and purified using Qiagen’s MinElute ® Gel Extraction Kit (ref. 28604). The purified DNA was sent to Eurofins Genomics for sequencing in both the sense and antisense directions. Sequence files were processed and aligned, and the consensus sequences were extracted using Geneious Prime software by Biomatters Ltd. (Geneious Prime 11.1.5, 1 Auckland, New Zeland). All sequences from the different strains representing female and male plants were aligned using the Geneious Prime multiple alignment function. These sequences were also analyzed for conserved domains using NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database (CDD). In three female strains –Moby Dick, Space Queen and Copenhagen Kush- primers S22645strt (5′CCAATAACCCTCATCCCATTCC3′) and S22645end (5′ATTTCCAAAAGTGTGCGATTCC3′) were used to amplify beyond the region of the female ∼540 bp band. The primers were designed based on a high homology BLAST result between these sequences and Scaffold 22645 of the Purple Kush Genome (canSat3) available on The Cannabis Genome Browser. 2 Sequence files were again processed and aligned, and the consensus sequences were extracted using Geneious Prime software.
Assessing Sequence Variation of PCR Bands From Female and Male Plants
To compare the genetic variation among bands represented by the 540 bp size following PCR, an additional 10 strains of marijuana were chosen. They ranged from landraces (“Jarilla,” “Hoa Bac Silver,” and “Brazil Amazonia”), to autoflower strains (“Northern Lights,” “Acapulco Gold,” and “Snow White”) to commercially grown strains (“CBD Therapy,” “Space Queen,” “Pennywise,” “Girl Scout Cookie,” “Copenhagen Kush”). All of the strains were genetically female, i.e., grown for production of pistillate inflorescences (female phenotype). The plants were initiated from vegetative cuttings and were grown under hydroponic conditions or in the cocofibre:vermiculite mix and provided with the nutrient and lighting conditions for commercial production by a licensed producer as described above. Both leaf tissues and DNA extracted from these strains were stored at −20°C until used. Sequence comparisons were made among the 540 bp size band in female plants of these 10 strains, between the 540 bp band in female and male plants (strains “Moby Dyck,” “Blue Deity,” and “Sweet Durga,” among the 540 bp band in male plants (where present), between the 540 and 390 bp bands in male plants, and among the 390 bp band in male plants of different strains.
ISSR primers UBC 807, 808, 817, 825, 834, and 842 were used to assess the extent of genetic variation. Eight samples each from leaves of strains “Moby Dyck” (ID 1 in Table 3), “Space Queen” (ID 2 in Table 3), and “Lemon Nigerian” (ID 3 in Table 3) (representing the hermaphrodite-derived population of seeds) and eight samples each from strains “Blue Deity” (ID A in Table 3), “Sweet Durga” (ID B in Table 3) and “Healer” (ID C in Table 3) (representing the female:male cross-fertilized population of seeds) were included. PCR amplifications were performed in a volume of 25 μl. Each PCR reaction contained 0.1 μM of ISSR primer, one unit of Taq DNA polymerase, 200 μM of dNTP’s, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 20 ng template DNA, and 1 × PCR buffer. Amplifications were carried out in an Applied Biosystems 2720 thermocycler programmed for 1 cycle at 94°C for 3 min for initial denaturation, followed by 40 cycles at 94°C for 30 s, 55°C for 45 s, and 72°C for 2 min and then a final extension step at 72°C for 7 min (Punja et al., 2017). After amplification, each PCR reaction was subjected to electrophoresis on a 1.5% TAE agarose gel and visualized under UV light. Gels were viewed with a Life Technologies (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Toronto, Canada) E-Gel Imager with UV-light base (cat. 4466611). The sizes of the PCR products were compared with a molecular size standard (1 kb plus) DNA ladder. Only well-separated bands of 0.1–4.0 kb size with high intensity were scored as present or absent for ISSR markers. Data were scored as “1” for the presence and “0” for the absence of DNA bands in each sample. Each set of experiments was repeated to ensure consistency of results. A total of 25 loci were analyzed. These data were used to run statistical analyses in the program POPGENE version 1.32 (Yeh and Boyle, 1997). The observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), percent polymorphic loci (PPL), Nei’s (1973) gene diversity (H), Shannon’s index (I), and gene flow estimate (Nm) values were calculated using POPGENE v1.32. Nm was also calculated according to the formula, Nm = (1 – Gst)/4Gst (Slatkin and Barton, 1989). These statistics were calculated between groups (strains) and between populations (hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and random mating were assumed for both hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized populations. All C. sativa samples were assumed to be independent.
Female Inflorescence Development
The production system for marijuana plants is based on vegetatively propagated plants that are first grown under a 24 h photoperiod for 4 weeks and then switched to a 12–14 h dark:10–12 h light regime. The plants in Figure 1A have just been “flipped” to the reduced lighting regime. Figure 1B shows development of large terminal inflorescence clusters in some strains, e.g., “Hash Plant” that extend to a 1 m height above the leaf canopy. The sequential development of the female inflorescence in several marijuana strains is shown in Figures 1C–K. At the early onset of flower development (weeks 1–2 of the flowering period), young terminal inflorescences developed white hair-like stigmas (Figure 1C). In subsequent weeks 3–4, development of yellowish-white clusters of stigmas which were bifurcate at the tips can be seen (Figures 1D,E). This stage was the most receptive to pollination (authors, unpublished observations). In red and anthocyanin-accumulating strains, stigma development was similar over this time period, and at advanced stages of inflorescence development, the yellowish-white clusters of stigmas were accompanied by red or purple pigmentation in the style tissues or subtending bracts (Figures 1F–H). Maturation of the inflorescence (weeks 5–6 of the flowering period) was characterized by the curling and browning/reddening of the stigmas and swelling of the carpels that occurred in the flowering period (Figures 1I,J). The mature inflorescence close to harvest (weeks 7–8) with collapsed stigmas and swollen carpels is shown in Figure 1K).
Hermaphrodite Inflorescence Development
Female inflorescences of three marijuana strains grown under commercial conditions were visually examined at weekly intervals. Beginning around week 4 of the flowering period, the appearance of individual anthers or clusters of anthers within the bract tissues adjacent to the stigmas was observed in hermaphroditic flowers at a frequency of 5–10% of the plants examined (Figures 2A–D). The anthers were visible in weeks 4–7 of the flowering period and were present until harvest. In rare instances, the entire female inflorescence was converted to large numbers of clusters of anthers (Figure 3). Scanning electron microscopic examination of the stigmas that were present in hermaphroditic flowers showed the papillae (stigmatic hairs) (Figure 4A), which in mature inflorescences originated from a central core (Figure 4B). Individual anthers that were produced in hermaphroditic inflorescences were shown to consist of an outer wall (epidermis and endothecium) with a longitudinal groove (stomium) (Figure 4C) which, upon maturity, expanded and dehisced to release pollen grains (Figure 4D). Bulbous structures presumed to be trichomes were also observed forming along the stomium of the anther (Figure 4E). When viewed under the light microscope, the anther wall and stomium could be seen and pollen grains were released into the water used to mount the sample (Figures 5A–C). Some pollen grains had collapsed when viewed under the scanning electron microscope (Figure 5D). Pollen germination was observed within 48–72 h on water agar and ranged from 10 to 30% (Figure 8A).
Figure 4. Scanning electron microscopy of the stigmas and anthers in hermaphroditic flowers of Cannabis sativa. (A) Young developing stigma with receptive papillae or stigmatic hairs (arrow). (B) Older stigma in which the stigmatic hairs are coiled and collapsed around a central core. (C) Individual anther prior to dehiscence showing an outer epidermis with the beginning of a longitudinal groove (stomium) (arrow). (D) Mature anther that has dehisced and revealing pollen grain release (arrow). (E) Enlarged view of the stomium showing formation of bulbous trichomes (arrow) forming in the groove.
Figure 5. Light and scanning electron microscopic observations of anthers and pollen grains in hermaphroditic flowers of Cannabis sativa. (A) The anther wall and groove are visible and pollen grains can be seen packed within the anther pollen sacs (arrow). (B) Release of pollen grains into water used to mount the sample. (C,D) Intact and collapsed pollen grains as viewed in the light microscope (C) and the scanning electron microscope (D).
Figure 6. Flower and pollen development in genetically male plants of Cannabis sativa. (A–C) Male flowers formed in clusters at leaf axils. Each flower is pedicillate, with individual stalks. (D–F) Opening of male flowers to reveal 5 green-white tepals which expose 5 stamens each attached to a filament that dangles the anther. (G) Large amounts of pollen (arrow) being released through the longitudinal groove (stomium) of the anther. (H) Enlarged view of the stomium showing formation of bulbous trichomes (arrow) forming in the groove of the anther. (I) Close-up of a trichome with a short stalk (arrow). Pollen grains can be seen in the foreground.
Male Inflorescence Development
In genetically male plants, anthers were produced within clusters of staminate flowers that developed at leaf axils (Figures 6A–C) at around 4 weeks of age. At flower maturity in weeks 4–6, anthers dangled from individual flowers and were observed to release large amounts of pollen grains, which were deposited in yellow masses on the leaves below (Figures 6D–F, 7). Such prolific release of pollen was not observed from the hermaphrodite flowers. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the anthers produced on staminate plants showed the release of pollen grains (Figure 6G). Along the longitudinal groove or stomium, the formation of a line of bulbous trichomes (Figure 6H) that developed on a short pedicel (Figure 6I) was observed, similar to that seen in hermaphroditic flowers. When pollen from male plants was deposited onto female inflorescences (Figure 8B) and viewed at 72–96 h, various stages of pollen germination and germ tube development were observed (Figures 8C–F).
Figure 7. Comparative growth of male (M) and female (F) plants of C. sativa strain “Blue Deity,” showing the more rapid growth of male plants to achieve taller slender plants that shed pollen onto shorter slower developing female plants. Plants originated from one seed batch produced from cross-fertilization that yielded male and female plants in approximately equal ratios. Seeds were planted at the same time and grown under a 24 h photoperiod for 4 weeks.
Figure 8. Light and scanning electron micrographs of pollen germination in Cannabis sativa. (A) Pollen germination in water after 72 h showing germ tube formation at a 20% frequency. (B) Female inflorescence showing protruding receptive stigmas. The flower heads were excised and pollinated in vitro using pollen collected from a male flower. (C–F) Pollen germination and germ tube development on stigmatic papillae in situ. Arrows show pollen grains in (C,D) and germ tube growth in (E,F).
Within the hermaphroditic inflorescences in which anthers were found, seed set was initiated, and mature seeds were observed prior to the harvest period (Figures 9A,B). From each of 3 inflorescences bearing seeds, a total of 34, 48, and 22 seeds were obtained. The seeds were removed and placed in moist potting medium where they germinated at a rate of 90–95% within 10–14 days to produce seedlings (Figures 9C,D).
Figure 9. Seed formation within hermaphroditic inflorescences of Cannabis sativa. (A) Longitudinal section cut through the female inflorescence showing outer protruding stigmas and unfertilized ovules. (B) Seed formation within a hermaphroditic inflorescence after 3–4 weeks. Some of the calyx tissue was cut away to reveal the underlying seeds. (C) Seeds recovered from hermaphroditic flowers, ranging from mature (brown) to immature (yellowish-green). (D) Stages of seed germination after placement in a cocofibre:vermiculite potting medium and incubation for 10 days.
PCR and Sequence Analysis
PCR analysis was used to identify specific bands which correlated with the male or female phenotype in commercial marijuana strains. Seedling tissues from strains “Moby Dyck” and “Blue Deity,” produced through cross-fertilization by a commercial seed producer, showed a band size of approximately 540 bp in female plants, while two bands (ca. 540 and 390 bp in size) or one band (390 bp), were observed in male plants. The resulting ratio of male:female plants in seeds derived from these latter strains was 5:7 and 9:5, respectively (Figures 10A,B). In a third strain “Healer,” however, which were seeds obtained from outdoor cultivation of marijuana, only two male plants were identified among 16 plants; the remaining 14 were female (Figure 10C). By comparison, seeds obtained from hermaphroditic inflorescences of strains “Moby Dyck” and “Space Queen” yielded seedlings that all showed the 540 bp band size corresponding to the female phenotype (Figures 10D,E); the male-specific 390 bp band was absent. PCR analysis of DNA isolated from anther tissues (A) from hermaphroditic plants showed that the banding pattern was of the 540 bp band (Figure 10F). In contrast, the banding pattern observed in staminate flower tissues showed the 390 bp band (data not shown).
Figure 10. PCR analysis to identify male and female seedlings of Cannabis sativa. In female plants, a band of approximately 540 bp in size was observed, while in male plants, a 390 bp size band was always observed and the 540 bp band was sometimes detected. (A,B) Strain “Moby Dyck” and “Blue Deity” showed a 5:7 and 9:5 ratio of male (M) and female (F) plants, respectively, from seeds derived from a male:female cross. (C) Strain “Healer” showed a 2:14 ratio of male:female plants. (D,E) All female plants derived from seeds resulting from hermaphroditic flowers of strains “Moby Dyck” (D) and “Space Queen” (E). (F) PCR analysis of anther tissues (A) showing female composition compared to male (M) and female (F) plants. Water control with no DNA (C) and 1 kb DNA ladder (NEB Quick-Load ® ) (L).
Assessing Sequence Variation of PCR Bands From Female and Male Plants
Sequence comparisons were made using Geneious Prime among the 540 bp size band in female plants of 10 different marijuana strains, between the 540 bp band in female and male plants, among the 540 bp band in male plants (where present), between the 540 and 390 bp bands in male plants, and among the 390 bp band in male plants of different strains. The 540 bp band in female plants showed sequence similarities between 89.4 and 100% among different strains (Table 1). Strain “Girl Scout Cookie” showed the lowest sequence similarity (89.4–94.1%) to all of the other strains (Table 1), particularly to the autoflower strains “Northern Lights” and “Snow White.” Strain “Moby Dyck” showed 99.3% sequence similarity to “Copenhagen Kush” (Table 1). These variations in sequences could be due either to sequence divergence over time (SNPs) or base-calling errors introduced during sequencing. In comparing the sequences of the 540 bp band present in female and male plants, the range of sequence similarity was 87.3–98.1%, with strain “GSC” showing the lowest similarity (87.3–90.6%) to the male 540 bp band sequences of three strains that were included in this study (Table 2). The 540 bp band in male plants showed 95.1–97% similarity to each other while the 390 bp band sequence in male plants had 97.5–100.0% sequence similarity (data not shown). In comparing the 540 and 390 bp bands in male plants, two regions of about 176 bp were absent within the 390 bp band, suggesting an internal deletion had occurred (Figure 11). The 540 bp band had 95% sequence similarity with a SINE MADC2 sequence (GenBank Accession No. JN426768.1) and 86% similarity with a MADC2 male-specific sequence (GenBank Accession No. JF298280.1). The 390 bp band had 100% sequence homology in the aligned overlapping region with JF298280.1 and 88% sequence homology with JN426768.1. The sequence variations among the 540 bp band present in different female strains is likely due to the presence of SNP’s detected in these strains.
Table 1. Sequence comparisons of the ∼540 bp band among 10 female Cannabis sativa strains.
Table 2. Sequence comparisons of the ∼540 bp band between three male (M) and 10 female (F) Cannabis sativa strains.
Table 3. Mean values of statistical analyses comparing variation between cross-fertilized and hermaphroditic populations of C. sativa.
Figure 11. Sequence alignment of PCR fragments from female and male Cannabis sativa plants corresponding to the 540 bp band in female strains (F), the 540 bp band in male strains (M-L) and the 390 bp band in male strains (M-s). Only overlapping sequences were aligned for comparison. (A) Female sequence alignment showed 89.4–100% identity. The “*” designates sequences which have been submitted to NCBI with Accession Nos. MK093855, MK093861, and MK093858, respectively. (B) Male sequence alignment showed 95.1–97% identity in M-L and 97.5–100% sequence identity in M-s. There are 2 regions of DNA present in the 540 bp bands that are absent in the 390 bp male bands, indicating indels in this region. All 390 bp male sequences share this deleted region. The “*” designates sequences which have been submitted to NCBI with Accession nos. MK093856, MK093859, MK093854, MK093857, MK093862, and MK093860, respectively.
Conserved domain analysis of bands originating from female and male plants indicated the presence of an rve Superfamily integrase core domain (pfam 00665 present in the 540 bp band and pfam cl121549 in the 390 bp band size). When primers S22645strt and S22645end were used to amplify beyond the region of the female 540 bp band in three strains, a pre-integrase GAG domain (pfam13976) was found upstream of the rve Superfamily integrase core domain (Figure 12). Both domains are potential features of Class I LTR retrotransposons.
Figure 12. Conserved sequence domains present in representative female and male Cannabis sativa plants. (A) Conserved domains present in a female plant of strain “Space Queen” (SPQ) (Accession no. MK093858). Primers S22645strt and S22645end were used to amplify this region in the female genome beyond the ∼540 bp band produced by the GreenScreen primers. The size of the fragment, named SPQ(F)FL, is 1,190 bp. (B) Genious 11.1.5 pairwise alignment of representative male sequences (540 and 390 bp sizes) from strain “Jarilla.” The two indel regions total ∼178 bp. The 540 bp sequence (M-L) has the rve Superfamily pfam00665 whereas the 390 bp sequence (M-s) has the rve Superfamily core domain cl21549. (C) Structure of Copia and Gypsy LTR retrotransposons. This image was taken from the GyDB Gypsy Database 2.0 (http://gydb.org).
The six-primer set revealed a range of polymorphic bands within the populations of plants originating from hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized seeds. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 44 to 64% for the hermaphroditic group of plants (n = 24) and 60–72% for the cross-fertilized group of plants (n = 24) from a total of 25 bands scored. A representative ISSR banding pattern is shown in Supplementary Figure S1. The range and mean values of statistical measures derived from data analysis for the hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized populations are presented in Table 3. To estimate the genetic variation between cross-fertilized and hermaphroditic populations and between the groups (strains) within these populations, the effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei’s (1973) gene diversity (H) and Shannon’s index values were calculated (Table 3). Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, independence, and random mating were assumed for both hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized populations. Comparisons among the cross-fertilized groups (A,B, and C in Table 3) show overlapping mean values and standard deviations for their Ne, H, and I values. The Nei’s gene diversity (H) values for groups A, B, and C were 1.6 ± 0.5, 1.6 ± 0.5, and 1.72 ± 0.4583, respectively. This suggests that there was no observable difference in the level of genetic variation between the three cross-fertilized groups. The same observation can be made when comparing the three hermaphroditic groups (1, 2, and 3 in Table 3). With regard to mean values of the two populations, the hermaphroditic population did not differ in values of Na, Ne, H, and I when compared to the cross-fertilized population. This was confirmed by a Student’s t-test, in which all p-values were > 0.05 and therefore not significant (Table 3).
To determine if hermaphroditic populations as a whole are as genetically variable as cross-fertilized populations, the effective number of alleles (Ne), percent polymorphic loci (PPL), Nei’s (1973) gene diversity (H), and Shannon’s index values were calculated and compared (Table 3). The data showed no difference between these values (Table 3). The cross-fertilized populations had a combined Ne value of 1.7553 ± 0.2655 and the hermaphroditic populations had a combined value of 1.5799 ± 0.3403. In addition, the cross-fertilized populations had an H value of 0.4138 ± 0.1162 and the hermaphroditic populations had an H value of 0.3330 ± 0.1675. These values are not significantly different from each other. The results indicate there were no measurable differences in the population statistics used to assess genetic variation among plants after one cycle of self-fertilization as compared to cross-fertilization.
The spontaneous development of hermaphroditic inflorescences (pistillate flowers containing anthers) on female plants during commercial marijuana cultivation creates a problem for growers, since the resulting seed formation reduces the quality of the harvested flower (Small, 2017). The allocation of resources by the female plant to pollen production, followed by seed production, can result in disproportionately lower levels of terpenes and essential oils (by up to 56%) in the pollinated flowers compared to unfertilized female flowers (Meier and Mediavilla, 1998). Therefore, inflorescences containing seeds are of lower quality and frequently not suited for sale. Unpollinated female flowers, on the other hand, continue to expand growth of the style-stigma tissues, potentially to increase opportunities for attracting pollen (Small and Naraine, 2015), and consequently are more desirable commercially. In the present study, we observed spontaneous formation of hermaphroditic flowers on 5–10% of plants of three different strains of marijuana grown indoors under commercial conditions. In most cases, small clusters of anthers developed within certain female flowers, replacing the pistil. In rare cases (two out of 1,000 plants), the entire female inflorescence was displaced by large numbers of clusters of anthers instead of pistils (Figure 3). The factors which trigger this change in phenotype have not been extensively researched. This is due, in part, to the restrictions placed by government regulatory agencies on conducting research experiments on flowering cannabis plants (including in Canada), which reduces the opportunity to conduct the types of controlled experiments that are needed to elucidate the basis for hermaphroditism.
In earlier research, induction of hermaphroditism in marijuana plants was achieved experimentally by applications of gibberellic acid (Heslop-Harrison, 1956, 1957; Ram and Jaiswal, 1970, 1972, 1974; Galoch, 1978; Rosenthal, 1991; United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime [UNOCD], 2009). Other studies showed that male and female flower ratios in marijuana plants could be altered by applications of chemicals such as 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid, aminoethoxyvinylglycine, silver nitrate, silver thiosulfate, or cobalt chloride (Ram and Jaiswal, 1970, 1972; Ram and Sett, 1981). Silver nitrate inhibits ethylene action in plants (Kumar et al., 2009) and was reported to increase male sex expression in marijuana, cucumber and gourd plants (Atsmon and Tabbak, 1979; Ram and Sett, 1982; Stankovic and Prodanovic, 2002). In a recent study, applications of silver thiosulfate induced male flower formation on genetically female hemp plants (Lubell and Brand, 2018). These findings demonstrate that changes in growth regulator levels in treated plants can impact hermaphroditic flower formation.
Physical or chemical stresses can also have a role in inducing staminate flower development on female plants of marijuana. For example, external environmental stresses, e.g., low photoperiods and reduced temperatures in outdoor production, were reported to increase staminate flower formation (Kaushal, 2012). Some plants formed hermaphroditic flowers when female plants were exposed to extended periods of darkness early during growth or during altered photoperiods during the flowering stage, although the exact conditions were not described (Rosenthal, 1991, 2000). Such stress factors could affect internal phytohormone levels, such as auxin:gibberellin ratios (Tanimoto, 2005), which could in turn trigger hermaphroditic flower formation in marijuana plants. In Arabidopsis plants, auxin, gibberellin and ethylene interact with jasmonic acid (JA) to alter stamen production (Song et al., 2013, 2014). Consequently, jasmonic-acid deficient mutant Arabidopsis plants exhibited male sterility, with arrested stamen development and non-viable pollen (Jewell and Browse, 2016) while JA treatment restored stamen development in these mutants. In marijuana plants, environmental stress factors which enhance JA production could potentially promote hermaphroditic flower formation but this requires further study. Lability of sex expression may offer advantages in promoting seed formation in hermaphroditic plants subject to environmentally stressful conditions (Ainsworth, 2000).
In the present study, pollen germination and germ tube growth were observed in samples of hermaphrodite flowers and pollen transfer from male flowers to stigmas of female flowers showed germination in situ followed by germ tube growth and penetration of the stigmatic papilla. Small and Naraine (2015) and Small (2017) showed pollen grains attached to stigmatic papillae but the germination and penetration process was not described. We observed a row of bulbous trichomes forming along the stomium on the anthers in staminate flowers and in hermaphroditic flowers, confirming earlier descriptions by Potter (2009) and Small (2017) for staminate flowers. The function of these trichomes is unknown. The findings described here are the first to demonstrate viable pollen production and anther morphology in hermaphroditic flowers in marijuana.
In Mercurialis annua, a plant species that exhibits trioecy (co-occurrence of male, female, and hermaphrodites), male plants were observed to produce substantially more pollen than hermaphrodites (Perry et al., 2012). Our visual observations of male flowers of marijuana indicate significantly more pollen was produced and released compared to hermaphroditic flowers. These male plants released pollen over a period of 2–4 weeks; estimates are that each male flower can produce as many as 350,000 pollen grains (DeDecker, 2019). While the proportion of hermaphrodites in populations of marijuana is unknown, the frequency of seed formation within the hermaphroditic flower during indoor production is likely greater, despite the lower amounts of pollen produced, compared to a female flower dependent on wind-dispersed pollen from a male plant (indoors or outdoors). The distance over which pollen is dispersed from individual anthers in hermaphroditic flowers is probably limited to a few meters in indoor or outdoor growing facilities, compared to up to 3–5 km from male plants grown under outdoor field conditions, depending on wind speed and direction (Small and Antle, 2003). Male plants grow faster and are taller than female plants grown over the same time period, ensuring more rapid development of flowers and pollen dehiscence (Figure 7). However, the complete exclusion of male plants in indoor marijuana production suggests that the majority of seed formed would be the result of selfing. In outdoor cultivation of marijuana, where there could be several pollen sources, there is a greater likelihood of obtaining seeds that are the consequence of both self-fertilization and cross-fertilization. In Figure 10C, seeds collected from an outdoor field site showed two male plants and 14 females, contrary to the expectation of all females if they were from hermaphrodite selfing. The only explanation for the two males is that they originated from cross-fertilization with pollen from a male plant. Seeds collected from hermaphroditic flowers in indoor production in the present study all gave rise to seedlings which expressed the female genotype in a PCR-based test, compared to an approximately 1:1 ratio of male: female plants from cross-fertilized seeds. The primers amplified a 390 bp band which was present only in male marijuana plants, and a 540 bp fragment was present in male and female plants. Sequences comprising the male-specific 390 bp band were highly conserved among the 10 marijuana strains examined, and they differed from the 540 bp fragment through internal deletions of approximately 170 bp in size. Furthermore, detailed sequence comparisons of the 540 bp band showed variation due to the presence of a number of single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The internal deletion and SNP’s observed in these bands have not been previously described for Cannabis sativa. In the dioecious plant Silene latifolia (white campion), a hermaphrodite-inducing mutation was found to be localized to the Y chromosome in the gynoecium-suppression region (Miller and Kesseli, 2011). The Y chromosome plays a key role in sex determination in S. latifolia, and three sex-determining regions have been identified on the Y: the female suppressor region, an early stamen development region, and a late stamen development region. When hermaphrodites were used as pollen donors, the sex ratio of offspring they produced through crosses was biased toward females.
Molecular markers have been described to distinguish between male and female plants in hemp. Using RAPD markers, Sakamoto et al. (1995) observed two DNA fragments (500 and 730 bp in size) to be present in male plants and absent in female plants. The 730 bp DNA fragment was named MADC1 (male-associated DNA sequence in Cannabis sativa). The sequence of MADC1 did not exhibit any significant similarity to previously reported sequences. In a study by Mandolino et al. (1999), RAPD analysis revealed the association of a 400 bp band consistently with male hemp plants. Following sequence characterization of this MADC2, a low homology (54.8–59.8%) was found to retrotransposon-like elements in plants but not to MADC1. Sakamoto et al. (2005) conducted further RAPD analysis to identify additional male-specific bands in hemp (MADC3 – 771 bp in size and MADC4 – 576 bp in size) which were characterized as retrotransposable elements and reported to be present on the Y chromosome as well as on other chromosomes in male plants. Torjek et al. (2001) reported additional male-specific sequences MACS5 and MADC6 in hemp which were not homologous to any previously published sequence. Furthermore, conserved domain analysis indicated the presence of either a rve Superfamily integrase core domain alone or in conjunction with a pre-integrase GAG domain, both of which are potential features of LTR retrotransposons (Llorens et al., 2011). These previous studies suggest there are multiple sequences within the C. sativa genome that are associated with the male genotype, but which can also occur on other chromosomes (autosomes), many of which have similarities to transposons.
Transposable elements (TEs) have been found throughout eukaryotic genomes, including those of yeast, drosophila, rice and humans (Chénais et al., 2012). In C. sativa, Sakamoto et al. (2005) showed the presence of multiple Copia-like retrotransposon locations along the Y chromosome and throughout the autosomes in hemp. In the present study, a GAG pre-integrase domain was found upstream of the rve Superfamily domain in three female marijuana strains. Both domains are features of Class I LTR retrotransposons (Wicker et al., 2007; Llorens et al., 2011). According to NCBI’s Conserved Domain Database, the GAG pre-integrase domain (pfam13976) is associated with retroviral insertion elements. In addition, the placement of these domains is characteristic of the Copia Superfamily of LTR retrotransposons (Wicker et al., 2007). Therefore, the presence of Copia-like retrotransposons within the C. sativa genome is confirmed, but their functions or association with the expression of male or female phenotype remains to be determined.
Estimates of the degree of genetic variation (diversity) among plant populations have been obtained using isozyme markers (Cole, 2003), chloroplast DNA markers (Carvalho et al., 2019), nuclear DNA-based markers (Govindaraj et al., 2015; Bhandari et al., 2017), and single nucleotide polymorphisms (Pucholt et al., 2017; Zhang et al., 2017). In hemp, previous studies on genetic diversity assessment have utilized RAPD markers (Faeti et al., 1996; Forapani et al., 2001; Mandolino and Ranalli, 2002). Microsatellite markers, in particular, have attracted interest as a tool to assess genetic diversity in a range of plant species, including those that are diecious (Barker et al., 2003; Teixeira et al., 2009; Dering et al., 2016; Szczecińska et al., 2016; Zhai et al., 2016; Kumar and Agrawal, 2019). Measures of genetic variability are expressed as the percent of polymorphic loci (P), number of alleles per locus (A), expected and observed heterozygosity (HE, HO) and number of alleles per polymorphic loci (AP). Increased inbreeding (through selfing) and reduced frequency of polymorphic loci can result in lower levels of expected heterozygosity, particularly in small, isolated self-compatible plant species (Cole, 2003). In a dioecious out-crossing plant such as C. sativa, the low levels of self-pollination and extensive existing genetic variation would predict a minimal impact of hermaphroditism on genetic variation. The six-primer microsatellite set used in this study to compare the two populations originating from hermaphroditic and cross-fertilized seeds showed that the percentage of polymorphic loci, the effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei’s gene diversity (H) and Shannon’s index values had overlapping mean values and standard deviations, and were shown to not be statistically different. This indicates there was no measurable difference in the level of genetic variation between the hermaphroditic populations when compared to the cross-fertilized populations. One cycle of self-fertilization, which is the outcome from hermaphroditic seed production through selfing, may not have caused a measurable difference due to the high level of predicted heterozygosity in C. sativa (Small, 2017). Inbreeding can reduce the fitness of the inbred relative to outbred offspring, due to an increase of homozygous loci in the former (Charlesworth and Charlesworth, 1987). Populations that are typically outcrossing are expected to exhibit higher levels of inbreeding depression, on average, than populations that are typically selfing (Husband and Schemske, 1996). In a study involving dioecious Mercurialis annua, the degree of inbreeding depression (measured as seed germination, early and late plant survival, seed mass and pollen viability) was compared between outcrossed progeny and the progeny of self-fertilized feminized males (Eppley and Pannell, 2009); the findings revealed that inbreeding depression was low. Similarly, in populations of another dioecious plant, Amaranthus cannabinus, the effects of inbreeding on seed germination, leaf size and plant height were found to be minimal (Bram, 2002). In several dioecious plants, mechanisms to prevent inbreeding depression through selfing occur (Teixeira et al., 2009). Additional studies to determine the effects of sequential cycles of selfing on genetic variation in C. sativa should provide insight into whether the frequency of polymorphic loci is reduced and whether seed and plant performance measures are altered. The results from the present study suggest that one cycle of selfing to produce feminized seed (Lubell and Brand, 2018) has no measurable impact on genetic diversity in that population.
Data Availability Statement
The datasets generated for this study can be found in the NCBI – Genbank, Accession Numbers: MK093854, MK093855, MK093856, MK093857, MK093858, MK093859, MK093860, MK093861, and MK093862.
ZP formulated the concept of the project and designed the experiments, collected the data, wrote the manuscript, and prepared the figures. JH performed the molecular experiments and data analysis and assisted with the writing. ZP and JH discussed the results and edited the manuscript.
Funding was provided through a Collaborative Research and Development (CRD) Grant from Agrima Botanicals and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).
Marijuana and hermaphroditism
Hermaphrodite marijuana plants develop both male and female flowers. While it is a natural feature of the cannabis plant, it is an undesired trait when growing marijuana for consumption, since there is a great chance to obtain a plant full of seeds, what seriously reduces the quantity and quality of the final product.
Hermaphroditism can have 2 origins: genetic and environmental.
Genetically, some marijuana strains are more sensitive to hermaphroditism than others. This can be explained by the genetic origins of the strain – Thai sativas, for example, usually reach a high percentage of hermaphrodite plants – or also by the technique used when producing seeds (GA3. ).
Regardless its genetic sensitivity, a marijuana plant can also become hermaphrodite by the influence of stress. When it feels that the flowering conditions are too hard, hermaphroditism is an effective and natural way to shorten this period, pollinating its female flowers with the pollen of a few male clusters (usually called “bananas”).
Stress, that highly increases the risk of hermaphroditism, may have several causes, such as:
- Changes in the photoperiod, specially interruptions of the dark period during flowering
- Too much heat (>27°C aproximately), wrong environmental conditions
- Harvesting too late, when the grower misses the deadline for harvesting his/her plants
- Mechanical stress: broken branches, damaged roots, pruning during flowering.
- Irrigation issues (lack or excess)
- Insects, mites, diseases…
- Thermal stress (irrigating plants with cold water…)
- Use of phytotoxic products (pesticides, fungicides. )
Detail of a hermaphrodite marijuana bud
How to avoid hermaphrodite plants?
Hermaphrodite marijuana bud
To avoid hermaphrodite marijuana plants, the main rule is avoiding any kind of stress during their flowering period, so we limit the risks as far as possible. Pruning and staking of the plants should be performed during their growth and/or pre-flowering stage (stretch), before the buds start developing.
In order to lower the chances to get hermaphrodite plants, you should: mantain good environmental conditions in your growing space, a perfect hygiene, regularly monitor your timers , check your plants for insects and mites, water them regularly with a balanced nutrient solution. At the end of flowering, carefully check the trichomes so you don’t miss the harvest deadline.
When you have to decide which marijuana strains to grow on your next crops, carefully read any comments from other growers on the chosen strains, as well as seedbank advices and recommendations on them, so you have all the information about these seeds and can better avoid those strains with hermaphrodite traits in their genepool. Actually, if there are too many comments about the hermaphroditism of a specific strain, the breeder him/herself often withdraws it from the market.
Regular cannabis seeds are known for being less sensitive to hermaphroditism than feminized seeds, although this is not an axiom, we must carefully chech our plants for male flowers whatever the type of seed we are growing.
What to do when we find hermaphrodite marijuana plants?
As we mentioned before, it is very important to carefully check our plants for male flowers from the beginning of flowering. During the flowering period, these male flowers are easily observed due to their yellow colour and banana shape. We will also check for mites or insects, as well as molds, so we avoid the most common cannabis pests .
If a plant shows male and female flowers from the beginning of flowering, unfortunately we will have to eliminate it immediately from the growing space. Otherwise, it could pollinate the entire crop, transmitting the hermaphrodite trait to the offspring.
When the plant becomes hermaphrodite at full flowering, we have 2 options:
- If the plant only produces few male flowers, we can remove them with a pair of tweezers (sterilized with alcohol), spraying water on them – water sterilizes pollen – and then watching for new bananas.
- If the plant produces numerous male flowers, we should eliminate it from the growing space.
Finally, if a marijuana plant becomes hermaphrodite at the end of flowering, we should harvest it as soon as possible, before the male flowers release their pollen.
Detecting a hermaphrodite marijuana plant
Did you find seeds in your cannabis harvest?
Marijuana seeds developing
If you find seeds in your harvested buds and there is not any male plant near your growing spot, it is because there was at least one hermaphrodite plant in your crop. Those male flowers that were not removed released their pollen next to the female plants. Unfortunately, once pollinated the plant focuses its energy on producing seeds, instead of producing new flowers.
As we already mentioned, these seeds coming from hermaphrodite pollen will mantain this undesirable trait, so it is recommended not to grow them.
We hope that these tips will help you to efficiently detect hermaphrodite plants, so you can get the most out of your sinsemilla marijuana crop!!
What to do with hermaphrodite plants? Cut them off!!
The articles published by Alchimiaweb, S.L. are reserved for adult clients only. We would like to remind our customers that cannabis seeds are not listed in the European Community catalogue. They are products intended for genetic conservation and collecting, in no case for cultivation. In some countries it is strictly forbidden to germinate cannabis seeds, other than those authorised by the European Union. We recommend our customers not to infringe the law in any way, we are not responsible for their use.
How to distinguish marijuana males from females
Growing marijuana in grow tents
How to water marijuana plants in soil
When and how to move marijuana plants outdoors
Comments in “Marijuana and hermaphroditism” (133)
I saw you mentioned the need to pull hermies because they could “transfer the hermie gene to progeny,” not an exact quote but the jist. Respectfully, that’s not a thing. The hermie gene already exists in all the plants just something caused it to be expressed, probably combo of genes/environment. It is important to remove either the nanners or the entire plant because it could pollinate the rest of the crop, but those seeds would be genetically female and as likely to exhibit herm features as the parents, which is usually 10-20% in induced-male flower seeds.
Tim Alchimia 2022-06-15
Hi Jason, thanks for your comment. It’s a complicated subject and the exact cause for why one plant will show intersex traits while its sibling won’t is still not known. Let me put it this way, if you had two female plants and they were exactly the same in every way except that one expressed intersex traits while the other one didn’t, which of the two plants would you choose to breed with?
Hey! so for a 10week old plant, 2 weeks into flowering spotting 2 football shaped balls one with a hair coming out and the other just plane. can it be saved or is it to late?
Tim Alchimia 2022-05-06
Hi, thanks for your comment and question. Is the rest of the plant flowering normally as a female should? If so then, first things first, I’d recommend that you remove the balls as soon as possible. If they haven’t opened to reveal the anthers (which look a bit like a bunch of bananas) then there’s no chance of any pollination. There’s always the chance that these balls aren’t even true male flowers, especially given what you say about the hair coming out of one of them, which is a female trait. They may just be a strange but harmless mutation, and your plant may well go on to flower without any further problems. I would keep a close eye out for any more balls that may appear, and if there are only a few then you can easily remove them. If, on the other hand, they start popping up all over the plant then it’ll be harder to control and probably more trouble than it’s worth. I hope that helps. Best wishes and happy growing!
Tree Ssixty 2021-12-18
There are various reasons why your marijuana plants turned white. This can sometimes be due to the nutrient deficiency in your cannabis plants. why marijuanas plants turn white ? Sometimes, it can also happen as a random event during vegetative growth. Nonetheless, there is nothing to worry about this and you have to know that it is not justifiable to panic even if it happens. Your next step is to fix the deficiency of nutrients in order for your cannabis plant to regain its green color.
Tim Alchimia 2021-12-21
Hi, thanks for your comment. Some plants also display a degree of albinism, which is a genetic trait where sections of the flower are completely without pigmentation. Albino plants of this kind are an unusual curiosity but nothing to worry about, but at times, plants can show a lack of pigmentation in the tips of the buds due to light burn, or an excess of illumination that stresses the plant. If this is the case then action needs to be taken to reduce the light stress by raising the lights and increasing the distance between the canopy and the lamps. Of course, there are also plants that turn completely white due to an extreme case of powdery mildew, but we’d hope that would be easy enough to diagnose without our help! Best wishes and happy growing!
Besides light leaks, what other factors cause herms in early flower?
Tim Alchimia 2021-11-18
Hi, thanks for your comment and question. The most common other factors that could lead to intersex expression are, for example, heat stress, over-fertilisation or light stress (too much or not enough light intensity). It could just be the genetics though, sometimes plants will even throw a couple of male flowers early on and then not develop any more of them for the entire flowering phase. It’s also true that a lot of the more popular US “hype” strains in today’s cannabis market seem to be quite prone to showing some intersex expression, so your choice of seed variety can be an important factor too. I hope that helps. Best wishes and happy growing!
I have 3 female plants all in flower. I nothiced the one grew a few football shape pods where the sex organ goes. I’m so confused because it literally showed up over night!! Wish this allowed me to add a picture for better advice
Tim Alchimia 2021-08-19
Hi, that certainly sounds curious. It sounds like it could definitely be a hermaphrodite although it’s difficult to say without seeing it. You can send a picture for my attention to [email protected] if you like. Best wishes and happy growing!
Aaron Todd 2021-07-20
I have an odd question, my last two crops have had some sex changes happening, with supposed feminized seeds, this has happened in my open air(screened in) greenhouse. I have tomatoes and strawberries growing in the same greenhouse, is it in any way possible that either of those two plants pollen could be triggering my marijuana plants to turn hermaphrodite, or male?
Tim Alchimia 2021-07-21
Hi Aaron, thanks for your comment and question. There’s no reason that tomato or strawberry plants would have any negative effect on the sex of the plant, in fact, any ethylene (a plant hormone associated with ripening) emitted by the strawberry or tomato fruit would have the positive effect of encouraging the development of female flowers in the cannabis plants. Are the plants under a natural photoperiod or are you doing light deprivation? It’s more probable that there’s some kind of light contamination affecting your plants. This could be an outdoor light on the back porch or even something as small as a garden LED lamp used to light pathways. The only time I’ve ever personally experienced hermaphrodite plants outdoors was due to a small LED about 20 yards away from my plants. Once I removed the light contamination the problem stopped. I hope that helps. Best wishes and happy growing!
Naun Briones 2021-07-17
Hi, thank for all the good info. I am keeping a male that seems interesting for pollinating. He was flowering nicely but a some point, perfect hairy female flowers clusters started to grow. I have seen hermaphroditism before but always on female plants popping male flowers, not the other way around. I am going to pollinate a couple of females with his pollen, just because I am curious. have you seen this before? Do you have some experience breeding with such? do you think that hermie traits will be passed on to future female generations? any tips?
Tim Alchimia 2021-07-19
Hi and thanks for your comment. Yes, I have experienced a hermaphrodite male once but I didn’t keep him around for long enough to find out how his progeny turned out. Personally, I don’t do any breeding with known hermaphrodite plants – I think there are already enough of these problems in the cannabis gene pool without contributing further! Of course, there’s no harm in trying it out and satisfying your curiosity – it’s the best way to find out for yourself – just be aware that the hermie trait will probably be passed on to the next generation. I hope that helps, best wishes and happy growing!
Pollen from hermaphroditing plants typically do NOT carry the hermie trait. I just read a paper yesterday from 2020 where they had 100s of plants and control groups. Did DNA testing on all plants including hermie, hermie hybrids and self pollinated plants. And they seen that that seeds produced from hermies do not typically carry on the trait. Self pollinated hermies are basically genetically identical to the original plant. It said something about how mutations weed out the trait. Seems a good evolutionary advantage. Self pollination and a chance to carry on.
Tim Alchimia 2021-06-26
Hi, thanks for your comment. I’d like to read that paper, can you provide a link, please?
Poor article, there is no gene for hermaphroditism, it’s simply down to stress. If it was passed on and made more likely there wouldn’t be a market for feminised seeds as guess how they’re made in every case? By stressing the plant with colloidal silver. It’s made more likely by breeding lower and lower thresholds to various stresses that trigger the plant thinking it’ll die before pollination and thus hermaphroditing (sp?). A lot of the greatest strains created came from accidental pollination by hermaphroditism. Gorilla glue #4 is the product of pollination by hermaphrodites twice! Chemdawg is from hermaphrodite seeds found in bag seed bought at a great full dead concert, OG Kush is a cross between Chemdawg and a lemon Thai x old world Paki. I’ve had the same Jack Herer plant since the late 90’s that was grown from bag seed, I had a crop hermie due to too low temps and I and others have grown out those resulting seeds and not once had them hermie again as none of us have had any major stresses
Tim Alchimia 2021-04-08
Hi, thanks for leaving your opinion. You make some good points regarding the proliferation of “bag seed elite” clones but any grower who has worked with them will tell you that those cultivars (OG Kush, Sour Diesel, GG4, Chemdog, etc.) are famous for their readiness to show intersex characteristics, even under just a little stress. Hermaphroditism is indeed a characteristic that will be passed on in the genetics of seeds made with this type of clone and will take several generations of careful breeding to get under control. On the other side of the coin, there are varieties that will not show hermie traits, no matter how much you stress them. If it wasn’t a genetic issue then this would be impossible. You’re entirely wrong about the method used to make fem seeds though. The vast majority of feminised seeds available on the market are produced using STS spray and the resulting male flowers are not the result of stressing the plant but are caused by the chemicals applied blocking the production of ethylene, the phytohormone needed to produce female flowers. I really don’t think anyone’s been making feminised seeds by stressing their plants for a long time now, that method has been proven time and time again to result in hermaphrodite offspring and it is one of the main reasons that fem seeds had such a bad hermie reputation for so long. A good reliable breeder will only use plants for making feminised seeds that have previously been thoroughly stress-tested and proven to have no intersex traits. Any plants with a tendency to produce male flowers under stress should be rejected as they will pass that characteristic on to their progeny. Once the plants without intersex traits are selected, the STS is applied to induce male flowers. The resulting seeds will have a far greater chance of being sexually stable than those made from plants with intersex characteristics. Of course, a good grower will be able to cultivate some hermie-prone genetics without any problems, as you’ve proven with your Jack Herer bag seeds. The problem is that not everyone who grows is a good grower, and not all genetics have the same level of instability: some varieties will show a couple of male flowers at the end of the flowering period while others will bust out the balls in the first few weeks of flowering. This means that a “sexually unstable” variety that is completely fine in your grow room conditions may well react adversely to the conditions in another person’s grow. Trust me, a fully stable variety will basically take anything that a novice grower can throw at it and still not develop any male flowers, otherwise, we’d be dealing with hermie complaints all the time and with all varieties, whereas in reality that’s not the case. Considering the sheer number of seeds we sell, we only get relatively very few complaints of that nature and almost always with determined varieties or genetic families. I hope that helps to clear up a few misconceptions. Best wishes and happy growing!
Hi i had a 100% female production on 25 plants until just before flowering, then possibly from watering stress 4 turned male, and because i wasnt quick enough in recognising this 8 have turned male. Im an outdoor grower so i separated them, and the males i plucked all the buds and hint of male seed. i still have a good female crop and am about 2 weeks off final harvest date. My question is can i use the remaining hermaphrodite plant for medicinal cannibas. I only make product for tincturing or infused oil for animal consumption. will the CBD levels still be ok on all plants or should i separate the product from the plants that changed sex. I have no interest in THC levels i only want cannabidoids. Cheers.
Tim Alchimia 2021-03-30
Hi, thanks for your comment. There’s no problem at all in using a hermaphrodite plant for extracts, there shouldn’t be any change in the cannabinoid ratio for that reason. If the plants are CBD-rich then they will remain that way, only with slightly lower overall cannabinoid levels due to the pollination – once a plant is pollinated it puts more energy into seed production rather than resin production, resulting in a slight reduction of cannabinoid content. I hope that helps, best wishes and happy harvesting! P.S if you want, you can even include the seeds (crushed) together with the material for processing into a tincture – the hemp oil content is very healthy and full of omega fatty acids and other beneficial compounds that will be great for humans and animals.
Hey Tim, thank you so much for your help. It is just amazing having somebody on the other corner of the earth who is listening and taking his time for giving his expert advice. I should have read the entire comment tree and I would have got all answers. (I will do it in future) But you guys have so much patience. Thank you I really appreciate your help. This is a great forum!
Tim Alchimia 2021-03-04
Hi Toni, thanks so much for taking the time to reply, I’m really glad I could be of help, that’s what we’re here for! Best wishes and happy growing!
Dear all, I really need your help. I found your website when I discovered yesterday one of my plants having seeds on the topside of a few buds. Here some details of my grow -I have a grow tent 1x1m -2plants OG kush + 2 plants critical jack -seed bank is Dinafem -All are in week no.7 of flower after 5 weeks of veggie stage. -All are about 60cm tall -I use the scrog method with a net. -I made them have around 60 to 80 buds each plant with fimming method My Problem Now one of the critical plant is showing 1 to 3 seeds on the top of the bud and on the lower buds on the bottom also 1 seed sometimes Actually only some arms and their buds in the same area showing this. In panic i cut the 2 complete arms which are herming. Now only on a very little number of buds like 4-5 buds in different parts that remained on the plants i see beginning seeds. So I i kindly ask you for your suggestion. The other 2 plants OG KUSH don’t show this. Only the other critical plant show on 1 arm 2or3 buds with beginning herm. As I am in week 7 (2 weeks till harvest) Shall I cut and dry the plant and remove it from the others or do you think it is okay to keep it? You know I am fertilising with hesi soil system. Last feed was 4 days ago. So I thought it would be good to stop the fertilisation, then in 3 days remove the plant keep it 2 days in dark and then harvest it. My mean worry is that it will harm the other plants too. This is my first grow, I am a greenhorn and I think I stressed the plant too much, too much defoliating, fimming, LST, not enough water in the weeks before and also 1 time mistake with light timer. Hope you can help me Muchas gracias Toni
Tim Alchimia 2021-03-02
Hi Toni, thanks for your comment. Sorry to hear you’re having problems with your plants. It definitely sounds like a case of stress causing the Critical plants to show some intersex traits, although it’s curious that the OG Kush plants didn’t get affected as that genetic line has much more of a reputation for being sexually unstable. Still, it sounds like you’ve realised your errors which is half the battle won! Next time you’ll have much better results if you can learn from these mistakes. I think that, in your position, I would carry on with the flowering as planned, carefully removing the male flowers (they look like bananas) as you find them. If you’re growing for your own personal consumption, a few seeds here and there are an inconvenience but they won’t ruin your crop entirely, you can simply pick them out of the weed before you smoke or vape it. I think that removing whole branches would be too much of a loss. I understand that it’s a SCROG so access might be complicated to pick off the ale flowers, so if you decide to harvest the plant early then cutting out the fertiliser is a good idea, I’d leave at least a week without nutrients, more if possible. I definitely wouldn’t recommend keeping it in the dark for 2 days though, there’s no benefit to doing this and it will cause unnecessary stress for your other plants. I hope that helps, best wishes and happy growing!
My plants are flowering and I unfortunately had an issue with my timer so my flower room received an extra 12 hours of light at 18 days ou flow what course of action should I take should I do now Thanatos y pu
Tim Alchimia 2021-02-18
Hi Redson, thanks for your comment and question. I wouldn’t recommend messing about with the photoperiod anymore than has already happened. For example, giving the plants 24 hours of darkness would only serve to stress them further, increasing the chances of hermies. I would put them straight back to 12/12 and get them back on schedule as soon as possible. With any luck, the plants won’t react too badly to the interruption. At best it’ll be nothing, maybe you’ll see a bit of strange flower growth, at worst (and depending on the genetics) it could be a banana party. I really hope that’s not the case. Best of luck and happy growing.
Belrhynn Is an Alchimia client 2021-01-25
I have a female plant that decided to go hermie. Now my question is: Will the plant grow buds or is that over with, and yes there are male pollips there are seeds, and no no buds. Fun yes? If needed I can send in a pic or 2
Tim Alchimia 2021-01-25
Hi, thanks for your question. The answer really depends on how far through the flowering phase the plant is now. If it’s only early flowering then you should be able to remove any male flowers and allow the female flowers to develop properly. If, on the other hand, your plant is well advanced in flower then it’s probably too late for it to recover and give any kind of a harvest. Of course, a lot will depend on the variety you’re growing, for example, a long-flowering Sativa is more likely to recover and give some kind of harvest than a fast-flowering Indica. If you like, you can send photos to [email protected] for the attention of Tim. All the best, happy growing!
Hi I’ve been reading the blog and learning fast, a little too late. And think I may have had red light during the whole of the vegetative stage. I didn’t know how hermaphroditism could be caused (again learning fast). I’m confused now with I have managed to make all my plants hermaphrodites. Would anyone be able to spare a few minutes to have a look at a few photos and give their opinions please?
Tim Alchimia 2020-12-04
Hi Jenny, thanks for your comment and question. It’s highly unlikely that a constant red light during vegetative growth would cause any issues, it’s only once the plants enter into flowering that problems can start if anything interrupts the 12 hours of darkness required to bloom. If you want to send clear photos (for the attention of Tim) to [email protected] then I’d be happy to have a look to reassure you.
All the best and happy growing!
My question is, if I see no seeds or pollen sacs, but my bud is “seedy” looking and not a full tight beautiful bud but a small pathetic loose bud. Is it a hermie?
Tim Alchimia 2020-12-04
Hi Gina, thanks for your comment and question. If you can’t see any male flowers or seeds being produced then it’s highly unlikely that your plant is a hermafrodite, but is most likely a Sativa-dominant cannabis variety that produces loose, airy buds with large calyxes. Some strains like Dr Grinspoon are famous for this style of bud, and while it’s not the typical dense bud you’re used t seeing, many growers and smokers really like the flavours and effects it gives. I hope that helps clear things up.
Best wishes and happy growing!
Cassandra Is an Alchimia client 2020-11-29
Hi Tim, thanks for responding. I planted four and ended up with four females. Luck. I think I got lucky and the red light did not affect the plants and what I was seeing is just more buds coming in. Just kind of freaks me out after I found the red light.
Tim Alchimia 2020-11-30
Hi Cassandra, thanks for getting back to me and letting me know, I’m glad it turned out to be nothing more than a scare! Good luck with the rest of the grow, best wishes and happy harvests!
Cassandra Is an Alchimia client 2020-11-25
So I’m working on the 4th week of Bud stage and just realized that my power strip had a red light and a green light that’s been on 24/7 this whole time. This is my first grow and I see something that I am unsure if it’s now a Hermie or if it’s just buds growing. Is there any way to attach a picture and get and opinions from people who know more? Thanks
Tim Alchimia 2020-11-25
Hi Cassandra, thanks for your comment. It’s possible that the red light on the power strip may have caused your plants to get stressed and produce the odd male flower (the green light is no problem as plants can’t “see” green light at all. Have you seen anything that looks suspiciously like a male flower yet? If you want, you can send photos of the plants for my attention to [email protected] and I’ll do what I can to help you out. Best wishes and happy growing!
Chris m 2020-11-20
Hi I have 6 plants in my bloom room on week 7 out of 9 I planned. I have 2 problem plants about 2 weeks ago on week 5 my master kush became a hermaphrodite and opened about 7 pollen sacks and I have some OG kush that’s been popping nanners for a week or so. My question is should I cut my losses and harvest now or should I push the Pollenated bud to week 9? i am not wanting to grow seeds. will any more bud growth happen after is pollenated? Will the thc and cbd % decline after they have been pollenated?
Tim Alchimia 2020-11-20
Hi Chris, thanks for the comment and question. I think at this stage, the choice you have to make is between harvesting early and getting slightly immature flowers with immature seeds, or leaving the full 9 weeks and getting mature buds, albeit with potentially mature seeds. The way I see it, the immature seeds will be as much as a PITA to a smoker as the mature ones would be, whereas the mature flowers ought to be far superior to those harvested early, so looking at it from that angle, I’d say it’s probably best to wait. You never know, the pollen from the male flowers might be infertile, as is sometimes the case, so you may not have any seeds at all. Fingers crossed! Pollinated buds will have lower levels of cannabinoids and terpenes than sensimilla, but the levels won’t decline once pollination occurs, they will just increase at a slower rate. Bud growth ought to continue pretty much as normal. I’d also recommend checking carefully to find the cause of the stress that may have caused the hermaphroditic expression in the first place. This could be down to a light leak in the grow area, high temperatures or inconsistencies in the photoperiod, among other things. I hope that helps, all the best and happy growing!
Kyle Is an Alchimia client 2020-07-22
Hi, doing my first crop outside in backyard, i started 20 sativas inside and killed the known males early then put the females out late may around 3ft tall. Now I have 2 10ft tall plants starting to bud. Each day I try to inspect the plants as best as possible (they are 10ft tall in 2 ft tall pots so 12ft total) today I noticed 10 fully developed seeds near the bottom only. I cannot find any pollin sacks anywhere on either plant. I have 5 other plants in different locations in my yard that are not as developed as these two giants. Anyways, my question is, could only half of a plant go seedy or will the entire plant get fertilized?
Tim Alchimia 2020-07-23
Hi Kyle, thanks for your comment and question. It’s hard to say exactly what happened here, but the fact that you’ve found fully developed seeds would indicate that the pollination event happened around 4-5 weeks ago, possibly one of the males that you removed had already opened its flowers and dropped some pollen that you didn’t notice. Whether or not the entire plant has been pollinated or not is hard to say without examining it, but it’s perfectly possible for a small part of a plant to be seeded while the rest of the plant is fine, it really depends on how much pollen was released and how windy it was at the time. The fact that you’ve only found a few seeds at the bottom of the one plant indicates that you probably won’t have an issue and that the pollination was very localised. I really hope that’s the case! Fingers crossed for harvest time. Best wishes and happy growing!
So I harvested my flowers and come to find out I found some seeds and some of my buds at the time of harvest I took my veg and threw them into my flower room with me doing that will my new crop end up being pollinated or do you need a live plant to pollinate
Tim Alchimia 2020-06-25
Hi, thanks for your comment. It really depends on how long passed between the first plants getting pollinated and the next set of plants going into flower, but the chances are you’ll be okay, pollen won’t stay viable for long in grow room conditions. Best wishes and happy growing!
Fish Grinfingers 2020-05-22
Howdy y’all. So my business partner freaks out anytime I move any of the plants in the bloom rooms for any reason, even if for just a minute. All the ladies are in 2gal plastic pots on 4 plastic 3.5×3.5ft trays, 16 pots to a tray, 4 trays to a room. The ladies are free standing, no poles, no yoyos, no trellis net. I hand water/feed twice in a 24hr period. To reach the pots at the back, I carefully shift the first pots of the second and third row of each tray about 3 inches in opposite directions. Well, as I said he feaks out and swears that will stress them enough to herm. This guy has been growing twice as long as I have but I’ve not experienced herm issues do to plant movement before, and I use to move my plants alot. I would spin each of my pots 180° daily to reduce shaded areas. I use light rails now. I’ve had herms before, do to poor genetics or from light leakage in a newly built growroom or when useing an old grow tent, but only a few and not in every room, Never a full crop. Is he correct and I’ve been unrealistically lucky for over 10 years? Or, is he unnecessarily over cautious?
Tim Alchimia 2020-05-26
Hey there, thanks for your comment and question. I must admit that I’ve never heard of a plant stressing and hermying because it was moved so I have a feeling that your partner is being somewhat over-cautious on this matter. Of course, there’s always the chance that you’re growing some particularly finicky genetics that he’s grown for years and knows very well indeed, but I’ve never experienced this in 20+ years of growing cannabis. However, I do agree that plants ought to be moved as little as possible, in nature they’ve evolved to grow in one place, without moving from that one spot and I’m sure that a plant which has never been moved would be marginally healthier than one that gets moved regularly, simply because the plant would be able to adapt to the conditions in that particular spot, the intensity and angle of the light, humidity, temperature swings, etc. That said, I move my plants all the time, from one outdoor spot to another, from outdoors to indoors when it gets too cold, and as long as the lighting schedule doesn’t change and there are no light leaks or other stress-causing factors I’ve not seen any hermaphrodite traits as a result, at least in my personal experience. I’d say that, ideally, the room should be set up so that it’s not necessary to move the plants at all. That way, you can get access to all the plants in the room and your partner won’t complain about moving plants! Otherwise, I don’t see any way that you can realistically perform your irrigation and fertilisation tasks properly without moving the plants! I hope that’s helped you out. Best wishes and happy growing!
My plants are flowering and I unfortunately had an issue with my timer so my flower room received an extra 12 hours of light what course of action should I take should I wait and see if Hermes pop or should I just cut my losses and chop down the crop at 7 weeks flower
Tim Alchimia 2020-05-04
Hi Tidbit, thanks for your comment and question. How frustrating for you, it’s so annoying when that happens! If I was in your position, being so far into flowering, I’d wait and see what happens. Yes, you might get a bit of strange flower growth, the buds might even stop developing, but I doubt it. It depends on genetics, but I’d say that the plants are probably mature enough to not go back to vegetative growth. Indicas and Indica-dominant hybrids will most likely be unaffected, while more Sativa-leaning hybrids which are more sensitive to small changes in the photoperiod, may cause some slight problems. I’d just keep a very close eye out for any male flowers appearing, although realistically they aren’t going to be able to do much at this late stage in the crop anyway, it’s highly unlikely that there’ll be time for the male flowers to develop, ripen and open to release pollen before you harvest, let alone for any seeds to develop. I think you’ll be fine. I hope that helps, best of luck and happy harvests!
Gerald Is an Alchimia client 2020-04-05
I started doing staggered crops because I didn’t have enough growing, anyway this seemed to be a good idea, have a harvest every month of 6-7 plants. So, while manicuring buds I found several opened male flowers! My question is about the remaining 7 females 3.5 weeks from harvest. Seems sure bet they were pollinated. I read that if a person sprays the suspect buds with water it will keep the plant from producing seeds. Also was told Reverse by optic dollar would dry up any would be seeds. Thanks for any help. Oh, growing blue dream and a strain similar to jilly bean. 6-7 crops, first hermies I’ve found!
Tim Alchimia 2020-04-06
Hi Gerald, thanks for your comment and question. Sorry to hear you had some “bananas” in your plants. I wouldn’t necessarily presume that the rest of your girls have been pollinated, as these male flowers that appear late in the cycle are often infertile, so incapable of making seeds. Of course, that may not be what happened this time, but in any case, I’m afraid there’s no sense in spraying the suspect buds with anything at this point. If the buds really are pollinated, then there’s nothing you can do about it at all, any seeds will continue to develop and mature until you harvest the plant. You’ll just have to hope that either the male flowers were infertile, or that they didn’t get to pollinate too much of the buds. A giveaway sign that a bud has been pollinated is when the pistils shrivel up and turn orange/brown. If the pistils on the remaining plants are still white, then the chances are you’re ok. As for the cause of the male flowers, it could be that the plants you were growing are genetically predisposed to show intersex traits. On the other hand, it could be stress during cultivation. If everything went well without overfeeding, heat problems etc, then I’d recommend that you double-check your grow space for light leaks that could have caused the problem. I hope that helps, all the best and happy growing!
Can a feminised plant, that is induced with silver/water mix to make pollen sacs, fertilise its own flowers to produce its own seeds? if it can, how should i go about doing this?
Tim Alchimia 2019-01-07
Hi J, thanks for the question. Yes, a female plant can be “reversed” that is, treated with Silver Thiosulfate Solution (STS) to induce it to produce male pollen sacs. Then that pollen can be used to pollinate a non reversed clone of the same plant to create S1 seeds (self-pollinated 1st generation) which are feminised “copies” of the plant, although they will rarely produce and identical copy of the mother. You’ll need to do some more in-depth research into the subject if you’re serious about it, but Silver Thiosulfate Solution is made by mixing precise quantities of Silver Nitrate with Sodium Thiosulphate and distilled water. It’s applied early in the flower period and basically works as an ethylene-blocker, causing hormonal changes.
stevo – if you’re reading this, i bet you’re looking at calyx – the female preflowers. google it and lemme know
Hi Cynthia read your question. I would take female showing male pollen sacks and cut it from the herd right away. I tried pulling off male parts and found it a losing battle. Any time I see male parts on a female off she goes. save your other 3. I know it’s not easy but it’s reality. Enjoy smoking the other 3.
I have four plants all originally females ranging for 6′ to 8′ tall. They are starting to flower and I’ve noticed the most stressed out plant now is showing signs of malle pollen sacks! Not sure if the plant is saveable can I cut the portions that appear Male and leave the female flowers. Signed. Hella Bummed
Tim Alchimia 2018-07-30
Hi Cynthia, thanks for your question. That’s a shame, but if it’s only one plant then sure, you can just remove the male flowers as they appear. Sometimes female plants will produce a few male flowers at the beginning of flowering and then go on to be a problem-free female plant. My advice is to keep pulling the male flowers off and see what happens. If it keeps on producing pollen sacks after you’ve removed them a couple of times, then personally I’d cull the plant. It’s not worth risking your entire harvest for one plant, it’d be too easy to possibly miss a male flower which could end up pollinating the rest of the plants, ruining the whole sinsemilla crop! Hope that helps, all the best and happy growing!
Jane Yurtis 2018-02-22
The seeds produced by a fertilized-stressed female; are they fertile?
Tim Alchimia 2018-02-23
Hi Jane, It’s hard to say whether they’ll be fertile or not, it depends on a few factors such as genetics, maturity of seeds etc. What I would say though, is that these seeds are the product of a female with intersex characteristics that you probably don’t want to perpetuate to another generation. These seeds, if they’re fertile, are likely to produce offspring with intersex or hermaphroditic tendencies, and will probably produce male flowers when stressed, leaving you with another seeded crop, which as a general rule isn’t what we’re looking for at all. My advice would be not to germinate those seeds and only breed with proven “true” female plants. All the best, happy growing!
I may not be the smartest of the bunch ,but when you buy seeds from plants that have been “femenized” you are just creating more problems for the industry. On the most rarest occasions 25% of the time do I find genetics worth noting. Look genetics are a lacking people there’s not terphenes, no cannabinoids, no nothing than besides the thc. If you want good genetics keep a male and clone it if you notice that your plants are diminishing reseed and start again. If you can not find regular seed and only have femenized seeds grow the plants up keep clones in case you can’t get pollen sacks then wait for a full seed cycle to be initiated by the banannas. Grow these seeds separating the pre-sexed females and males ,then find the male that grabs your attention whether that’s short thickly gushed with slender leaves find the male that floats your boat clone it then seed it with the females. YES, not all female plants when pollinated go perfectly into seed. Just remember the yin and the yang go into gardening . If you cheap out on the smallest of things expect big problems . The most important thing you can do is genetically diversify by doing your own breeding. We had seeds from thseeds and it was a Burmese kush and boy they were regular and had all females and the hermaphodite trait popped through and we had great bud that losted it all to genetic imbreeding. Gardening takes years to master my only advice is nobody will tell you the truth because we make our own reality. So if I can say anything that steers you in the right direction buy organic. Carbon bonded minerals feed microbial life and help the plants aboard their broken waste, also keep a worm bin and use soil from that bin for your plants worms are great at helping plants grow,they aero rate and break nutrients down to castings. Also use “AZOMITE” A-Z ORGANIC MINERALS INCLUDING TRACE ELEMENTE” this stuff used by the natives ,only now can it be bought micro ized is excellent for giving the plant what it needs. Learn mother nature because human made crap is a problem .
Tim Alchimia 2017-11-29
Hi Robby, thanks for your comments. In the second paragraph you make a lot of very good points, I agree wholeheartedly that organic cultivation by feeding soil microbes and worms is absolutely the best way to grow the very best weed! And yes, Azomite is indeed a great product, highly recommended! I have to disagree with what you say about feminised seeds though, I really don’t believe that the method of seed production can influence the quality of the resulting plants at all. Personally I’ve selected some amazing, cup-winning plants from feminised seeds on several occasions, and the few times I’ve done side by side comparison of regular and feminised genetics, I haven’t seen any difference in quality at all, apart from I’ve had more intersex issues with regular seeds than the feminised ones! With the expansion of the cannabis seed market, many companies have seen the opportunity for vast profits and have placed quantity over quality, to increase profits and seed yield, many have been selecting parent plants for the amount of pollen they produce rather than for the traits they transmit to favour, which has led to a great deal of bland and characterless cannabis on the market. The fact that a lot of this is feminised only reflects the current marketplace, dominated by feminised genetics to cater to a market that increasingly seeks convenience and quantity over quality. The most trustworthy seed banks will produce feminised seeds only from top quality parental plants that have been tried and tested to perform well, transmit the best qualities and show no intersex traits, meaning they will be extremely unlikely to produce any male flowers, even under stressful conditions. So just to reaffirm, feminised seeds don’t produce poor quality genetics, it’s bad parental selection by avaricious seed-makers that’s to blame. There are plenty of great genetics out there to choose from, with some really intense and exciting terpene profiles and effects too, it’s simply a case of doing some research and finding a good seed bank with a reputation you can trust. Then, with your organic approach to cultivation you should be able to produce some truly special herb! Best wishes and happy growing!
Are the odd seed in a female crop not female and not good to grow I got a couple of realy good looking seeds that I found in a white widow bud .thanks Tim
Dani Alchimia 2017-11-16
Hi Tim, Unfortunately, you don’t know exactly where these seeds come from, I mean, you know nothing about the male parent. It could have been a true male – your seeds would produce males and females – or a hermaphrodite plant – your seeds are likely to produce hermie plants. It is up to you! If you really liked the White Widow mother you could find some good plants there, but as I say we don’t know whether they’ll be hermaphrodite plants or not. Best!
People say that the odd seed you get I a crop of ladies is no good .but is that not how the original cheese started after being found in a bag of skunk at the exodos collective I Oxford
Hey Dani, Thanks for that, yeah just a planned daytime power outage, once off. Didnt think it would be a problem but needed to double-check. Appreciated =)
Dani Alchimia 2017-09-29
Hi LaymanS, Glad to help mate!! 😉
Hey, this is a great blog. Thanks to all contributors, I wish you well! My question: Interrupting the plants photoperiod in the dark cycle induces hermies as far as i can gather but does interrupting lightcycle for 15min to 30min also stress the plant and induce hermies? Thanks a heaps, L
Dani Alchimia 2017-09-25
Ho LaymanS, Plants grow or bloom according to the length of the night period. It is impotant to know whether we’re talking about a sporadic or daily interruption. If it’s sporadic, you’ll probably have no problems. But if it’s constant you may stress your plants (perhaps they don’t develop male flowers, but growth/bud formation may be affected). Hope it helped!
Dr. Chang 2017-08-27
Dani Many Thanks.. Will do. Colas are getting fat on all different plants. M
Dr. Chang 2017-08-20
Based on comments above ,I am screwed. All my 4 tents plants which are Sour D, Laughing by Buddha, and haze were pollinated by a Pot Gold Male plant . I didn’t get out of the tent in time. Now the plants are 7 weeks in flower and covered males sacs. I will take my medune on this crop and learn. My question is can I let the crop go to 9 weeks And simply Harvey and cure it? I realize I will have a shit load of seeds but can I smoke what I get? I am in a non Marijuanna date . Also should I just throw away all the seeds, clean tent,start over with fem seeds next crop? Thanks Mark
Dani Alchimia 2017-08-21
Hi Mark, You should wait until the plant is ripe and harvest it, just as if it wasn’t pollinated. As you said, you’ll probably get lots of seeds, but you can smoke the weed without a problem (after removing the seeds, of course). Still, pollinated plants have nothing to do with sinsemilla in terms of quality. If the Pot of Gold plant was a true male, then you’ll have a nice amount of regular seeds, which you could grow. On the other hand, if it was an hermie it would be better to throw aways the seeds. Cleaning the grow tent after each grow is recommended, even if you didn’t have any problem with pollen. Best!
Hi!! Loved reading all of this u guys have some great info and I learned a lot. Definitely have a hermie but my question is what can I do with the plant? Tea? Cannabutter? Even though it may be low in thc can I extract what it does have? Thanks in advance. ~Angelsyn420~
Hello Amber, thanks for your question. Sure, you can use the hermie plant to make tea or butter or any other kind of extraction. If there aren’t too many male flowers, you could even try removing them by hand as they appear and flowering the plant as normal. If that’s too much trouble, then cut down the plant and process it in the way that best suits you. As you’ve correctly pointed out, the potency won’t be as high if it’s been harvested early, but you’re absolutely right to want to make the most of it and not waste anything! Good luck!
Papa Indica 2017-06-24
Hey Dani, you must not have read through the whole thing bro, it was spider mites causing my problems. I had had them for a while but, they didn’t become obvious for two reasons from what I can gather, 1) my RH is generally too low for them to thrive and 2) I keep it too breezy in my tent for them to thrive so, I never once saw any webbing or anything to make it obvious to me. Looks like I’ve got things cleaned up good and I’m really looking forward to the new stuff I just started up. I hope things are going well for you my friend, I think about you sometimes and hope you and the family are doing well and the little one is healthy and happy. P.S. I mentioned the G Cheese I started, (Airborne G13 x Exodus Cheese), forgot to mention they’re from Scott Family Farms, aka Reeferman.
Dani Alchimia 2017-06-26
Hi Papa Indica, Man!! I undestood that you thought they were spider mites but you never found any! Good for you then, glad you found out the source of your problem. The little lady is doing great, almost one year old now. Talk soon my friend!!
Papa Indica 2017-06-21
Meant to say, may not even get the links and apparently not, that sucks.
Dani Alchimia 2017-06-22
Yo Papa Indica, How good to see you here, mate!! How’s things? I managed to make the links visible, awesome pics!! I’ve never heard of your problem before, and yes, it must be truly annoying. I can only think about some type of insect, but your plants seem healthy and free from pests. What is the RH in your flower tent? If it was too low it could cause some problems, although I don’t think it can make your resin glands to vanish. What about the buds? Are they also losing resin or just the sugar leaves? Quite weird my friend. I’ll do some research about it! Speak soon!
Papa Indica 2017-06-20
May not even get the thumbnails. Looks like the pic parts are “awaiting moderation”.
Papa Indica 2017-06-20
Back again, it’s been awhile. Probably not the ideal place for all of this but, we seem to have taken off with some chat here so. For quite awhile now I’ve been going nuts trying to figure out why I’ve been watching my plants start to frost up nicely in the beginning and then watching it seem to slowly melt away as they developed through flower. No one could offer me any kind of explanation that made any sense. Well, I finally figured out that I had spider mites and that it could be attributed to them screwing with the plants. Also realized that they hadn’t become obvious by developing webs, etc., for two reasons, one because I keep a good, breezy environment in my flower tent and my RH is generally too low for them to really flourish. I decided to deal with it by killing off everything I had growing and eliminating their food source along with the bulk of them and staying shut down for a good couple weeks minimum. Since my disability puts so many limits on me, I had to have my wife go in with a piece of clear packing tape and pat around on top of my carbon filter and my light, (since I was told they like to get up into the highest spots like that), and then scoured that thing with the scope, starting at 60x and working my way up to 120x and i couldn’t find the first sign of a mite or an egg. I’ve been fortunate enough to have had very little experience with bugs in my years of growing. Going to try to put a couple pictures on here, or at least links to some pics. Never tried that here so, hopefully it’ll work out. First one of the last plants I finished up, a Sour Secret. http://www.dayzeddesigns.com/viewer.php?file=s7p99i0l8id77y9b4k5.jpg Next I’ll try a pic of a Bubba Purple Chunk bud, a little something from OSG Collective and our friend Dani. http://www.dayzeddesigns.com/viewer.php?file=jx7khjfv6yg94oho7c4.jpg Last I’ll try a pic from the last of the GG4 I grew. This is from early flower and you can see how nicely it’s starting to frost up and the majority of it was gone from the leaves by the finish, really upsetting to watch it happen, can’t wait for a good run without them. Just started some Tokyo from Seeds of Compassion, some Fruity Pebble OG IC1 from Jaws, and a couple Airborne G13 x Exodus Cheese fems. Should be some fire! http://www.dayzeddesigns.com/viewer.php?file=t4nqbg3mgk3105nrzqjd.jpg Really hope these thumbnails work for me, fingers crossed. If not, you should be able to copy and paste the links into your browser to see them. Happy growing!
To the guy who was having all the issues finding seeds but now male flower in his pot. That you scrubbed and basicly gi’ied everything but still have the problem with seeds. Like one post said if there is no “bannas” on any of the plants their not” Hermes”. So if your doing everything as you say as far as keeping stress levels down while their flowering. Its bad seeds. Or foreign pollen stuck in your hair or cloths when u tend to them.. Youd b surprized how that causes plants to act crazy especilly during allergy season.
Just get autoflower strains, a haze strain is amazing, no need to worry about light leaks, get a sativa strain that likes heat, my fav strain is royal haze autoflower, mid to tall(up to 5 feet or more) and fast growing sativa, powerful cerebral high too, let them grow 24/7, it will take 7-9 weeks from seed to harvest
Papa Indica 2017-01-15
That is pretty crazy to be seeing seed production in the second week of bloom, as you say Dani, not many strains are showing much in the way of flower development at that point, let alone seeds! Clones obviously have greater maturity going into flower than plants started from seed, (as a rule anyway), so they’ll show flowers quicker but, even so, showing seed production that soon is blowing my mind. It obviously isn’t an issue of those particular plants herming, they couldn’t possibly have produced pollen and spread it that quickly, it had to have already been present or came from other plants being grown nearby. Of course, the end result is the same, seeded plants. I’m glad to hear the family is well Dani, I bet she’s beautiful bro! I’m envious, I love my sons but, I always wanted to have a daughter. Oh well, it’s kind of more fun being a grandfather to some girls I think, I get to spoil them more this way. :^)
Dani Alchimia 2017-01-18
Hi Papa Indica, Glad to read your comment my friend!! Yeeeah, being a father is the best thing in life. I’ll be soon writing you an email. All the best! 😉
Growing prancer 2016-12-07
Hey there I am in my second week of bloom and about 35 og strains are producing seeds I think it is cause of cold water and cold environment I know how to fix these I just want to ask if you revert them back to grow for a few weeks and try again if the herm trait is locked in genetics or are just posting cause of environmental influence
Dani Alchimia 2016-12-12
Hi Growing prancer, I’d try to raise the temps of the nutrient solution and grow room. Still, finding seeds in the second week of bloom is pretty weird, plants usually haven’t even started to produce male/female flowers by then. Switching them back to grow and then again to bloom could stress them, and you still would have the plants seeded anyway. Honestly, if I find my plants pollinated so soon I’d throw them away and start again, seeded plants are much less tasty and potent than sinsemilla. Hope it helped!
Papa Indica 2016-12-02
Wow, I don’t how time and things just slip away from you, can’t believe it’s been a year since I’ve been on here! I’ve kept in touch with Dani so, I guess that made it easy to let this slip. My life is so damn screwed up that it’s not really that surprising I guess, my disability rules and most days are bad, other days are worse and the rest we don’t need to talk about. Enough of that, I try to keep myself occupied with the grow as much as I can, I’ve had a lot of nice cuts get passed my way but, I’ve ended up keeping only the Sour Dubb and GG #4, the Chem D I had ended up throwing male flowers right out of the middle of some of the buds and seeded up a couple Sour Dubb’s and a Sour Secret I had next to them, I’m really not sure how the Jack Herer escaped getting pollinated by them but, somehow it did. That’s one of the problems with some of these hot new strains that are always popping up, too many times they are the result of some pollen chucking and not real breeding efforts, which is work and requires just that. work and effort, which is why they are unstable and we end up with more and more hermaphroditism. Personally, if I see a herm I’ll chop it every time, I don’t care what it is or how far along but, the way the Chem did it it just slipped right by. I probably wasn’t paying as much attention as I should have either, I had already decided I wasn’t running it again, I had run it before and at that point had only been keeping it going so I could pass a cut on to someone I had promised one to. Anyway, it’s late and I’m high so, I’m gonna stop because my head is kind of rambling crazily. I’m gonna try and remember to get back here more, I don’t know why I stopped getting email notifications when there was a new post, I used to. Hope the wife and baby are doing great Dani!
Dani Alchimia 2016-12-02
Hi Papa Indica! So good to see you’re back! As you say we see too many examples of pollen chucking nowadays, most of it coming from strains which were already created “by accident”, when a good clone hermied. Unfortunately, while keeping the good traits of the parent, the offspring will probably inherit the hermie trait. I’m so glad to read your comments again my friend, my wife and baby are doing great, the little lady is soooo lovely. 😉 All the best, speak soon!
Also I am going to be buying new ballast I have got a 240 by 240 tent . At the moment I’m using 3 600 watt HPS two of them are vented . Any suggestions on if I should go up to 2 1000 watt HPS vented . I’m in the UK and can you send me any links for a good but cheap digital ballast . Thanks for your all of your help
Dani Alchimia 2016-11-14
Hi Rob, From my experience, using 1000W systems inside grow tents is a bit risky. I’d use 4 x 600W HPS with air cooled reflectors if necessary, in this way you’d have much better light distribution than if using only 2 light sources. One of our cheapest options among digital ballasts is the Bolt Electronic ballast. Lumatek digital ballasts also offer excellent quality with similar price. Best!
Hi sometimes on week 5 onwards I do start to see tiny bananas not hundreds of them just a few and I alway pick them out immediately. I’m only going to be flower in for another three and a half to 4 weeks maximum and over the four years I have been growing I have only ever foun a couple of seeds however it does stress me you know what I mean there in full flower they’re looking great then you zoom in on a little banana and get this sinking feeling so I’m just after some reassurance I’m on week 5 and have just seen a plant with about four bananas and another plants with 2 bananas tiny single bananas done the usual pick them out but cannot help but feel palpitations when I zoom in on a banana from reading your thread they take 4 weeks onwards to develop into seed I shall be taking them down before this. I have found it is this particular strain that is more susceptible to hermaphrodite so just a few words of comfort from you please I am not going to separate the one but had a few bananas I’m just going to remove the bananas I’ve only got 4 weeks to go maximum obviously I will check every day for any new bananas and remove as soon as the tips are showing can I just chill out
Dani Alchimia 2016-11-14
Hi Rob, From what you say, this does not seem a major issue as long as they’re only few bananas. Have you noticed pollen when removing them? If not, they won’t probably produce any seed, very few at most. Some strains will develop bananas no matter what you do, but sometimes too much light can make plants to develop some male flowers. Have you noticed if they grow mainly on the lower parts of the plants? Normally, you can count a minimum of 4 weeks for the seed to develop since the male flowers release the pollen and pollinate the female flowers. Hope it helped!
Paddy Mak 2016-11-04
How do I prevent hermaphrodite from developing in a stealth cannabis landrace crop in Africa?
Dani Alchimia 2016-11-04
Hi Paddy, Unfortunately, hermaphroditism is a genetic trait so the only way to prevent it is using pure males and females and remove from the crop any plant with hermie traits as soon as possible. Best of luck!
Thank you so much Dani, you hit the nail right smack on the head! That’s exactly what I thought. And just as you mentioned this ECSDH plant does, exactly that , it threw about three or four bananas, and I plucked them out and it only made about 25 30 seeds on only the few bottom branches that I consistently kept up with as to prevent any others from getting hit. it all seems to have gone my way this time. I got ridiculous bud , I mean the most perfect lemon lime dank diesel flavor, all along with a small handful of feminized seeds that each costs 15 bucks or so, that I now don’t have to buy. I know that there could be some of them that have other negative genes but I gather , like you said, I believe that most of them are going to be good ones.. So I made out good with this one I think, thanks so much for getting back to me on this , I really appreciate it, as even after 12 years . I Still Learn. SteveO
Dani Alchimia 2016-09-12
Hi SteveO, I’m glad you got a nice harvest with this one!! As I always say. life is about learning!! 😉 All the best, dude!
The plant that produced just a small amount of seeds was the East Coast Sour Diesel Haze from Connoisseurs Genetics. It only produced about 25 30 seeds. couldn’t find male flowers the entire length of flowering , only a few seeds in a couple of the lower branch buds. it seems the are quite solid seeds with the full pitted circle at the end of the seed. According to a site on the web this signifies feminized seeds.. I s it possible that this plant , just so happened to produce for me a few fem seeds? They look good and the bud that was produced by this plant was incredible, not wanting to get rid of plant due to its performance. this palnt seems to have a tendency to do this each timei flower it. each time it seems it only does this in a very minor way. The four or five times I’ve run this plant it does the same thing. the bud reeks and the flowers get nice and fat and oily with dank . What do you think? Like I mentioned , the seeds look nice , solid, light brown with tiger striping. Thanks Dani !
Dani Alchimia 2016-09-02
Hey SteveO, Nothing to worry about, many Diesel genetics develop a few seeds during bloom (I’ve grown the SD Riri cut for 8 years and it happens with that one too). Since they’re not real hermies, you have a chance that most of these seeds will be females. The Riri cut develops very few bananas (if it does) on the tops of the plant. I have a Cookies/Kush hybrid that does the same as your ECSDH: by just removing the lower buds I won’t find any seed. I’m not sure about the pitted circle; from what I know, a nicely developed circle means that the seed has formed correctly and that it will be viable, but I’ve never heard of distinguishing regs/fems just by looking at the seed. Glad to see you around dude! 😉
Donavich here, I started my growing almost 2 years ago. Recently I was given aseveral budded boxes of plants that had not only turned male and pollinated the entire 228 plants but the strain that was produced has 35 different strains in it. They are a Sativa, Indica and medicinal, high in cbd. Well as I just found out, the ones that have grown so far are all feminized. But alas, all good things come to an end. I had for the first time seed production in half of one plant. I took the seeds off the plant because they were located by the female pistals. Will this plant would you think be alright or will it sprout pollen sacks? So confused.
Dani Alchimia 2016-08-30
Hi Donavich, Whenever you find seeds in your plants it means that one (or some) of them have developed male flowers and released pollen. A few days/weeks later, you can notice small seeds forming on the buds. Some genetics (Diesel, Kush. ) are known for developing a few male flowers during bloom, which normally only produce a small amount of seeds per plant. What you need to know exactly is what plant is releasing pollen and check whether it is a female that develpos few male flowers or it is a true hermaphrodite plant (you should get rid of it if it is the case). If you already got seeds then it means that some plant has released pollen a few days/weeks ago. I know it is hard, but you should identify this plant and remove it from the grow. Hope it helped!
Yo, Dani and Papa Indica, SteveO here, it’s been a while, I have a question? I have the strain East Coast Sour Diesel Haze from connoisseur genetics, and it is total lemon fuel pine funk , I nailed it this time. I have had no hermi issues at all any more, thank God. Well I did extremely well with this plant and none of the other plants went hermi or anything , but the Ecsdh did throw off a few seeds on a few of the scrap buds , only a few here and there on the lower end , so it wasn’t really hermi-ed out the tops are perfect , in fact most of the bud is killer and seedless athough I did end up with a small batch of what appears to be full healthy nice looking seeds. What do you think these seeds will be . Hermi seeds? or regs or fems? Remember I mentioned it was just a small tad of the plant that did this on the lower end, on a couple scragglers. in fact I had no idea until I was trying out some of the m as a sample since they dried quicker. and none of the other plants had seeds or male bananas. Any thoughts would be greatly appreciated.
Dani Alchimia 2016-08-17
Hey SteveO!! Glad to see you here again, dude! I haven’t grown the ECSD, but I’ve been growing Reservoir’s Sour Diesel IBL for years, which is a sister of the ecsd. Do not worry about finding some seeds, many phenos of this genetic line often develop a few beans. Since these seeds come from an auto-pollination of female plants, they’ll more likely be females than males. I’d try them for sure!! 😉 Speak soon!
I have a plant that was very thick but the branches never really grew . It’s the size of a cotton candy on a stick , it had very short fat fan leaves , the plant never grew with the others but is way beyond thicker. Nobody knows what exactly is wrong with it.
Dani Alchimia 2016-04-22
Hi Tyler, If it is only one of your plants, it could probably be explained by genetics. Sometimes, you see plants with deformations or plants that simply don’t grow as their sisters do. Does the plant look good and healthy?
You hit the nail on the head Dani. My Skunk #1 and my Super Silver Haze seem VERY stable and seem to be against making hermis. so I have noticed. I mean you named two of the ones that actually do not want to hermi. this is no coincidence obviously that we both have had similar experience with these two strains. So far things are getting stinkier and stinkier , actually haven’t had any hermi issues since before and since,Iblacked out the room COMPLETELY , things have seemed to turn around for the better. I am getting ready to set up my 3×6 flood table with 70 gallon rez in my 4×8 tent loaded with Strawberry Cough , Bubba Kush, and Og-18, wheepphhheewww does it smell ripe in here 🙂 I am going to have that lit up with two 1200 watt Mars 2 leds on each end with a 600 watt hps in the middle. ohh my god , it is going to kill it. And my 5×5 grow box. I am setting up a 4×4 botanicare flood table in there that just fits perfectly as so al the light will be on pant material and nowhere else , just hammering the plants.ILighting up the 4×4 table will be the Illumitex 300 ns (600 equiv) and the new 315 lec ( a light that is documented to produce more resin production per square ft than ANY other light or spectrum on the market so they say, and after playing with this light for the past week . I think it is going to do just that. so the grow box as well as the 4×8 tent are getting ready to get lit up in a big way. I expect to see some serious production here soon.
Dani Alchimia 2016-01-12
Hi SteveO, We made a selection lately of the Strawberry Cough, we have kept a couple of males and females. Not very stable, but there is a pheno with dry wood scent and strawberries background that is delicious. We also tried the Chocolate Rain (interesting phenos also), the Grand Daddy Purple (which I already grew once, I love the effect of that one) and what resulted to be the best of all, a Kush x Cookies hybrid. That last one produced one of the finest hashish I’ve ever smoked, absolutely spectacular: Speak soon!
Male pollen sacks, called nanners, will actually grow inside a female bud with no way to see them. And fertilize that bud. I’m also looking for a low-hermaphrodite strain. Some of these hiders can also be visible, but tucked underneath small buds lower on the branches. You have to lift the bud up with your finger to see it. One male flower very concealed. It’s a pain in the neck.
Dani Alchimia 2016-01-11
Hi LordElSupremo, Sure, hermies can become a true pain in the neck if they go unnoticed. As you say, there are strains which seem to be specialist in the art of hiding male flowers, so we should always check carefully all buds, nodes, etc. looking for male flowers, especially when growing seeds. Normally, old school strains like Skunk #1, AK-47 or the Super Silver Haze (in this case, feminized) are known for being stable and clean from hermie traits. Best vibes!
HAPPTY NEW YEAR! :):):) SteveO here with the latest. I now have set up two 1200 watt mars two lights at the opposing ends of my 4×8 tent with a air cooled 600 watt illumitex hps right smack dab in the middle. first in the middle for the beginning I used a 8tube t5 . once they got up I replaced the t5 with the hps. And hey PAPA , thanks buddy , I thank you endlessly for helping me with the hermi issue. come to find out it actually WAS light coming in . I found that ANY light even the little led light on the plug bar can illuminate a dark room and cause havoc . Now when you go in . it is black as the darkest black that there can be. And guess what gee now I seem to not be getting any seed issues or pollen issues. Thank you Alchimia for taking the time to correspond with me to the end helping me dial in this troubling problem I had. Never did you ignore me , so I want to say thanks guys , particularly Dan Alchimia and no doubt Papa Indica. You guys are stand up dudes. Thank you. Steveo . Now My flower room is wreaking so much toward the end of flowering , I don’t think I have ever hit it this solid before. You guys have a great year , can’t wait to hear how your next years grows go. I also just lately bought the very new (lec315) this new light only uses 315 watts and puts out the light duplicate of a digital 600 Hps with the entire ACTUAL COMPLETE SPECTRUM, from Uv to Ir. and the way the reflector , reflects the bulb down on the plants , it reflects five bulbs worth of reflection, you just have to see this light, 5 layered German engineered reflector paneling is state of the art. it puts out practically no heat as well. I have this light. they say that growers are pulling in a lb from each light. I tried it out in the veg and I can tell you it makes t5’s look bad and that is saying something . Take it easy buds. talk to you soon again, good to hear from you again Papa>
Dani Alchimia 2016-01-11
Hi SteveO, Dude I’m so glad we could help you!! Light leaks can cause problems, I usually cover any light (extension lead switches, etc.) with power tape or something similar. Btw, that Lec system looks amazing, can’t wait to hear your review on it! All the best, and happy new year!! 😉
Papa Indica 2016-01-04
Oh yeah, and Happy New Year!
Dani Alchimia 2016-01-04
Happy new year my friend, all our best wishes for 2016.
Papa Indica 2016-01-04
Hey guys, long time no talk. I used to use only LED’s, I ended up making the switch to T5’s and HPS mainly because of LED replacement costs, for the price you pay they never seem to last long enough for me and I can’t afford having to replace units so often. I’m very happy with the results I’m getting now but, the last LED I was using for flower was a beast. I had a 405 Chrome from Lighthouse Hydro and I was getting bigger, fatter, denser, and just plain nicer buds than a guy I know who was using a 1000w HPS, if it hadn’t started going to hell on me I’m sure Id still be using it. That being said, I AM getting more weight now than I ever did before, I’m quite happy with my lighting. Sounds like things are getting better for you SteveO, glad to hear it. It seems like too many people are too accepting of male flowers popping out on a lot of these new strains that are out there, I’m not one of them. There are plenty of strains out there in the world that are stable but, there are people constantly pumping out new crosses without proper testing and/or putting in the time to breed out undesirable traits, then these things go out and pollute the genetic pool further when they get crossed again and again with other things until we end up with a big fucking mess, which is where we’re at now. There was a time when breeders were breeding for the love of the plant, now it seems most of them are doing it for the love of money, more concerned with cashing in on the new gold rush than preserving the genetic pool of this plant we love so much. OK, enough of that rant. I’m starting to get a pretty good collection of stuff going, considering how much I can handle anyway. I’ve been fortunate enough to make some good friends, one in particular, that want to send me clones of good stuff, cutting out the pain of pheno hunting for me, which can be difficult to do when running small numbers all the time. Also have some good stuff going from seed that was also gifted from a good friend, that would be the first thing on my list. Sour Fire Lost G-13 Cannalope Kush Northern Lights White Diesel Code Blue Dirty Harry And I have a Hindu Kush Auto going too, kinda just for the hell of it. I also have a bunch of seeds that I’ve accumulated in a pretty short time and I have more clones coming my way very soon. One thing coming my way very soon is Dream Beaver. Of course I’m running clones from all this stuff to make sure not to lose keepers, things are coming together for me. I also just recently changed up my nutrient line-up, I was using FoxFarm but, they are over-complicated, over-priced, and hard to really get dialed in. Now I’m using Advanced Nutrients – Jungle Juice 3-part system along with Humboldt’s Secret – Golden Tree and Cal-Mag, plus my own blend of tea that they love. (I’ve changed that tea recipe ever so slightly from what I told you Dani.) Alright, enough for now. I hope you all are well and your gardens green. -Papa
Dani Alchimia 2016-01-04
Hi Papa Indica, Glad to see you here! Pretty nice collection of strains you got there, I’m sure you’ll get at least a couple of keepers from it! I completely agree with you in regard with breeding, many people only look for quick money and understand breeding as seed production. I have a superb Kush x GSC Forum cross (own selection) which develops few male flowers at the lower parts of the plant during the late stage of flowering. I’m trying to use it as parent for some test crosses, but will definitely have to remove that trait from the equation. Please keep us updated on your selection! All the best!
*Please don’t spam me with a shitload of technical information, this is just an experiment!* I found a few seeds in a baggie a while back. I decided to see if I planted them what would happen. I germinated them successfully and now they are in pots as of today. I thought I had done my research enough, but now I’m concerned. Are these seeds going to turn into hermaphrodites, do you think? I didn’t invest a bunch of money into this process for this reason. Do bag seeds = hermaphrodites ?
Dani Alchimia 2015-12-09
Hi sm, Not at all, they are not always hermaphrodite. Bag seeds come – obviously – from a female plant (with or without hermaphrodite traits) and an unknow parent (with or without hermaphrodite traits). This gives us plenty of combinations in which the offspring will be either hermaphrodite or not. Normally, the female parent is not hermaphrodite, but we know nothing about the other parent, the pollen donor. Well, this unknown parent can be: a pure male (if the female parent is also pure, there should be no hermaphroditism on their offspring), a reversed pure female (if the female parent is also pure, all plants from the offspring will be females), an hermaphrodite female (the offspring is likely to be hermaphrodite), an hermaphrodite male (the offspring is likely to be hermaphrodite) or a reversed hermaphrodite female (the offspring is likely to be hermaphrodite). As you can see, we can get hermaphrodite offspring in many cases, although some of them are rare. The only way to know if your bag seeds are good is growing them; this is a good idea if you want to select a plant from few seeds and do not want to spend money, but any professional grower would take that risk in large crops, since you do have a chance to get hermaphrodite plants which could pollinate the whole crop. Hope it helped!
Yep, you should get rid of all your hps and get just illumitex. now that I have had the opportunity to possess a few different brands , Mars , UFO, GS120, and of course illumitex . I just recently had to try the Mars out due to price , spectral output, power usage , efficiency , led power and beam angle, which the mars combines two different beam angles one at 90 degrees and the other is like 120 I believe this means they cross and the light is being spread at different diameters, pretty wicked, after now having these mars for a couple weeks now, which the mars operate with fans to cool the lights as well as heat sinks, where the illmitex is passive , no fans period and the Mars blows out hot air as far as I am concerned out the sides . I will say the mars are quite bright , actually bright to where you simply cannot look into them, where as the illumitex you can pretty much not that we should be doing this. Just sayin that the mars in brightness seems to outshine the illumitex although the results from the illumitex are unlike anything I have seen so far for the small 4x 4 area it illuminates. It is the Ns not the Larger one the Ds. That’s the one to get, it will undoubtedly outdo a 1000 watt hps , I am very sure of this. And the chlorophyll production will blow your mind. I haven’t had my bud blood to set my flowers in the past two gardens and the illumitex seems to do another thing they claim and that is flower onset is quicker . the illlumitex has no fans and I swear Like practically NO HEAT, now that’s incredible considering the monster rocks of strawberry cough it just produced. in my 4×8 tent , the results are so obvious. I have at one end of the tent a 8 tube t5 then in the middle I put the illumitex ns 300 (600watthps comparable light), and on the other end a mars two 700 watt light all new equipment, and under the illumitex , are the monsters, and everywhere else is mediocre in comparison. straight up, I mean nothing looks anything like the plants that reside under that one light so I think that tells it all. Only thing is I have not given the new three different Mars lights I just bough a chance yet to see what they will do. I actually just got them. I got their 1200 and two 700’s the 1200 uses 552 watts of electric in my 5×5 grow box I built which I removed my 1000 watt hps which seemed to be too much anyway, and so This cut the electric in half right off the bat , but now with the Mars I can Turn Off the flower switch , which I only need while I’m scrogging is the grow part of the light anyways , and this as well reduces the amount I am used to using even more. So Right now I have the 1200 in there, . ok I admit it , I also put another one of the 700’s in there too, guilty, but like I said no matter , still using an enormous amount of less electricity form the move to leds. at least I think , Have yet to see new bill. So I have this light in there with a G-13 Labs OG13(their version of OG-kush and I took this plant and bent let it grow and stretch to almost 3 ft and beaffy and then opened her up and bent all the stems over and tied her down around the dripper bucket and turned a plant that was receiving a square ft worth of usable light and turned this plant into what is now almost 4 ft in diameter , absolutely incedible, and now I am starting to flower her into a second layered scrog, this shts gona be sick. then when they start to develop a little ,i’ll simply flick on the flower switch to hammer away at them, should be interesting to see wht these mars do on their own. Well know soon enough. Good hearing from you. If you can scrap up the extra few bucks , get the bigger one , the ds , totally baddass. If I land a dcent enough tile or stone job , I most likely will be getting the ds. Most likely wont be too long before that happens. They say that the illumitex will out perform the t5’s , now that I will have to witness. t5;s in my mind are the bomb. Talk to You soon, good hearing form you, where are You Papa Indica?
Dani Alchimia 2015-12-07
Hi SteveO, Thanks for your accurate report on these grow lights. It is a pitty that some very useful LED systems have fans on them, since many people want LEDs precisely so they don’t have to use extractors and thus reduce noise, and these small fans are noisy as hell. Speak soon!
Well , Here are the results I have come up with. The illumitex has literally taken hps and put it to shame , straight up. I have never seen buds blow and become so dense until I found this light. I also went ahead and bought a few mars , one 1200 watt mars 2 , and twoother 700 watt mars 2’s , and it seems there is nothing so far that compares, although the mars haven’t had enough time yet. After breaking down the math in absolutely every possible way , from 3 watt led’s to 5 watt led’s , from rail lights to box lights, lights made by usa engineers, and lights made by Chinese(Mars ) which have been for decades the ones that most growers use cause mars lights are inexpensive , they are super bright , and use low power, I checked platinum led , advanced led, Apollo led, you name it I checked it out, and the illumitex Ns 300 only has 54 Surexi 5 watt led’s ,that’s only 245 watts of led light and it will guarantee-ably out-do a 600 watt hps in my opinion. How is it that this light does this when all the other lights all have to project at least about 500 led watts to come even with a 600hps while the illumitex does it with only 245 watts led. it does use 300 watt electric. but still that’s half the wattage of a 600hps. My 5×5 grow box I built , I took the 1000watt hps out of there and put in a 1200 watt mars two in its place , I then took a og kush in a dripper bucket, allowed the plant to stretch a bit to about a goo 2ft tall then took all the branches and bent then over and tied em up to create a plant now 6 times the size, let it veg a couple weeks and now it is about 4 ft in diameter still scrogging through the net , once I fill the 5×5 , I’ll be flowering her into the second net . I’ll bet I pull almost a pound off this one plant., You should see how lush this og kush is. The mars two 1200 only uses 275 to veg and 550 to flower , again cutting my electric in half in the grow box. Now I will have no need to run three ac units nor do I have to run ducting all over the place, as well most of the leds now a days allow you to flip a switch from veg to bloom so I never have to move or change the light in its place, ohh did I also mention , I don’t have to buy new bulbs every 9 months. ohh and the heat ponding down on the plants, no more of that stress on my plants. the perfectly designed spectral output that these lights put out is something you don’t see with hps. the hortilux super hps bulbs I use , you should look at the spectrum, its mostly yellow ,orange and green, how it is that hps grows the buds it does is beyond me considering the light spectrum they put out is all wrong for growing and flowering these plants. well I cant tell you how happy I am . I also noticed that I have found a few flowers on my bubba kush and my og-18 . I read that many strains will have a tendency to throw out a couple or a few male flowers just to try to keep itself going genetically. if this is true then it would make sense, cause most of these plants seem to flower most of the way through , and it is only 3/4 of the way through that they seem to throw off the few flowers. I can tell you that my bubba kush and og-18 are almost done flowering and the buds are so dank it is unreal. I was shocked to see the couple flowers pop up. I guess it’s no big deal , as long as it is only a couple or a few. Don’t you think.
Dani Alchimia 2015-12-02
Hi SteveO, Dude I’m drooling with the Illumitex, I’m setting up a small grow tent in which I wanted to use a 400W HPS but you are really making me think about it twice. The mere idea of not having to deal with high temperatures in the grow tent is just too tempting, especially when you say results are even better than with HPS lamps. About the flowers, I wouldn’t worry much about them; many strains develop male flowers at later stages of bloom, Kush and Diesel lines are known for that. Most times, it is just unfertile polen, so nothing to worry about. I’m glad you are getting good results now. Speak soon!! 😉
So far Strawberry Cough and a few others are looking great . I can’t emphasize enough the quality and good quantity of chlorophyll production, definitely beating the HPS, just tellin it how I see it. The illumitexNS300 so far is , without question , in my mind going to outperform the 600 watt hps, and I think quite extensively. What is being said , IS actually true, the flower onset is extremely quick with the leds, and the chlorophyll , ohh , and the bulk of the flower being produced is exceeding the hps. I’m going on around third week , maybe a touch more and the plant variety I have in a 4×8 grow tent are DNA Holy Grail Kush, Reserva Prevada OG-18 (one of my absolute favorites, Skunk #1, Strawberry Diesel, Bubba Kush, Kong Diesel (This one is one very tasty gem) , its a shame no one can get the seeds anymore anywhere , same thing is happening to, strawberry diesel, and pineapple funk. I had just ordered seeds and got e three strawberry diesel seeds ,just before they stopped selling them. The breeder doesn’t have those strains anymore I am being told, but SteveO;s got each one of em thank god. I’m gona try and see if I can get them to make me some fem seeds. I’m gona research how to do it . so I can have good seeds for later. Tomorrow I’m supposed to be getting two Mars two lights . one 1200. and one 700 reflector, after seeing the good results coming from the Illumitex I would be a fool to continue using hps scam lighting. No one can tell me that the scientists of today didn’t have any of this technology years ago.
Dani Alchimia 2015-11-24
Hi SteveO, Dude, you should try to keep cuts of all those strains, you got some really interesting things there! We usually make feminized seeds with silver thiosulphate, although there are several ways to do it. Best of lucks with your project! I’m really expecting to see if that Illumitex beats the 600W HPS, we’ll see it soon! 😉 Best vibes!
Well guys, I hate to tell you but the product ,”Reverse” is worthless. The RP SD turned again, only this time I have them in a controlled grow bow with so much intake air ,I can’t see how it will affect the garden next to it with the Strawberry Cough. Unbelievable . I am just moving on to new plants . This one is just not going to stabilize . Wish me luck that nothing else gets hit. I’ve got some badass plants coming along. One of them is OG-13 by G-13 labs . It’s their version of OG kush, well I have trained her and trained her and now she is huge almost ready to scrog and take the place of the RPSD. Now this run should be incredible. Talk to You soon. I’ll most likely get some bud from the RPSD but most of it is drying up , shutting down from flowering and starting to become dusty. Not good. But SteveO’s not gona get had this time I’m in the drivers seat controlling all the air now..
Dani Alchimia 2015-11-16
Hi SteveO, I’m sorry to read that dude, let’s hope the Strawberry Cough is not affected! Thanks for telling us about this product, any opinions on products are more than welcome. All the best for your next run with the OG-13, do not forget to tell us how it goes. Speak soon!
Oh yeah, I have them going over a batch of Strawberry Cough, OG-18,Holy Grail Kush , Strawberry Diesel and the plants chlorophyll production is far beyond what you see with hps, and its not the nitrogen, this is straight up chlorophyll and the resin and how amazingly oily the stems get from the intense chlorophyll production. I normally go out and buy a $150. jar of Bud Blood to set them off, well I went frantically looking all over the house for it . couldn’t find it . had to roll with it, and amazingly enough the led illumitex does exactly what they say when they state that it accelerates the onset of flowering. It did this just like adding Bud blood, I can’t believe how fast everything is going with them under the leds. very fast. I lolli-popped all of them big-time and now the monster heads are forming already. Should make some fist sized Strawberry Cough Nugs. I’ll bet that I also end up with hash tips . I just got a feeling seeing the amount of chlorophyll being produced. HeeeHeeeHee, Talk to Ya soon Brother,,
Dani Alchimia 2015-11-11
Hi SteveO, Thanks for the report dude, I’ve been a bit sceptical about LEDs for years, especially for flowering, but I’ve seen really interesting systems lately and I’m getting curious now. Hope you’ll get good results with the Illumitex, it’s one of those systems that is making me think about trying in the near future. Speak soon! 😉
That’s bud? That looks crazy. I don’t think I have ever seen anything like that before .WOW. This Reserva SD in my 5×5 grow I tarted it with 100 gallon rez , put in SensiBloom Ph perfectshmerfect, and it worked in 5 gallon buckets but when I went to mix a proportionate amount of nutes and water , it would only bring the ph down to like 6.5 or 4 so I figured it was kinda like the 5 gallon buckets I mixed a little bit more in and the ph went to perfect 6.0 every time , I was amazed , well I didn’t realize it was just good base nutes and still needs additives for the right result , well I went ahead and put the big bud in and the floralicious n, and kool bloom , and after adding in more ph perfect to try and get the ph right , I realized I must be shooting thru the roof on ppm’s well I had just started to run it thru the plants and quickly caught myself only after they had gotten at the end of the second week a shot of 2200ppm nute mixture if just for a moment, I quickly reduced it back down to around 1500ppm, Didn’t want to throw too much away , anyways long story short, You should see the see the extraordinary sugar coating , ohh my god it is absolutely unreal., I just stay away and try not to finger fk them like I have done in the past. Sometimes it can simply be so hard to resist a little rub and smell of a flower. I just noticed over the years that touching the pistols is not good for them. jacks em up. Yeah I have to tell you, I grew up in Florida n a golf course, learning how to play and actually working on the course itself cutting grass , building massive flower planters, I as a teenager worked on like five country clubs doing this work so I gained quite a green thumb to some extent. In my garden , you will not see a bug, nor will you find any leaves on any plant that doesn’t look flawless, it is just my overzealous impatience that gets me every time in the flower. I need to sow it down and take more time to really ,, well. just take my time. And I need to start timing a good flush for the plants instead of dimming down the nutes slowly. This time I’m gona let the RP SD go for right at about 6 or so weeks and then just straight water till I see the leaves change and trichs are right. Man , as I write this I can’t stop thinking of that pic of your bud. That is ridiculous. This Time in the 4×8 tent with all the led action going on I have two 2×4 trays in there, and I just lollipoped every plant all the way leaving just tops literally, just a few days ago and now being under these leds about 12 inches the flowers are clearly beginning and I think I may end up with some fist size rocks of Strawberry Cough. This plant I received installing a custom stone Master Bathroom designed by myself for the homeowner so he gave me this strain of Strawberry Cough , well he had it going and I swear , the end result was exactly that, these huge fist sized buds , solid and dense, and coated with goo. I just had to have it . well this time , it’s my turn. I just got em in there so I’ll let you know how they end up. Tonight I took a Pineapple Funk from Holy Smoke Seeds, you should check out the pics of that bud, the buds are human size in the pics they advertise with, so I grew it in a dripper bucket and , now just made some Bho with it and the flavor is indescribably mouth watering. I had completely no idea I would get that kind of quality result fro that plant. I was floored. Man ,, ,the Flavor , wow. Well heh , Dani Alchimia , It’s getting better. On the RS Sd the buds ended up becoming incredible although , you know how females put out little bracts under the flowers a lot sometimes, and sometimes I don’t see them , well with these bracts they are swollen almost like they are gona pop seeds , and if you pop one off and smudge it open , there you will find your enemy. In these pods I am finding little tiny ,tiny pinhead new wana be beginning seeds, there are in some of these bracts little clusters of wana be seeds , they themselves don’t seem to be getting any bigger , and it seems pretty clear the direction the plants are headed( flowering as they should without seed (problems) , but , There were two , I cut out of there cause I did find a couple male flowers, the rest now have incredible sugary buds that are amazing so far. I can’t see hw looking at them and how good they look now that they would turn back at this point. So It may just be that the (Spray Ductch Master played a positive role in suppressing the hermi gene to some extent, even if it was enough to just get me thru this one crow , I’m happy. I had to say good bye to this one seed Mother RS SD and maybe order some new seed to get stable female , cause her genes are killer. Talk your ear off some more soon , take er easy, Hey Papa Where are You?
Dani Alchimia 2015-11-06
Hi SteveO, Yeah, that SD phenotype is absolutely amazing, it develops almost no leaves and the taste and effect are crazy! Did you make some kind of test with Dutch Master? Like spraying all plants except some of them and see what happens? By the way, I’ve checked the Pineapple Funk. impressive pictures. Are you using the illumitex already? I’m curious on those systems. All the best dude, speak soon!
Yeah , good talking to you as well my man. So You read my stuff and you now know I’ve taken control of my frikkin air now to the point where the seeds can’t BS me anymore. I love Sour Diesel so much so I seemed to refuse to simply accept that I just must have gotten a bad seed and went with that one plant for clones and through all this time just wouldn’t accept it was truly a genetic situation. Now I understand this could be just this one seed that is just a morphodite so it will start out for a week or two making great flowers and then booom. if you dig through and pry the growing buds back , there you will find the enemy. I have in the flowering bedroom two gardens flowering . The one is the problematic Reserva Prevada’s Sour D unfortunately, and I did this , the other is a 4×8 tent , mostly closed, here I have a complete combo of lighting for my Strawberry Cough that I got from a buddy that I know has stable genes. In this tent I have two 8 tube t5s at both ends angled in then I have the illumitexNs300 in the center longways. then I have a UFO, with reds and deep reds , and then I have a Global Star 120 Equivalent to 420 watthps whatever,, this has the tent nicely well lit with quite a bit of a variety of lighting so as to insure I am getting these plants all the intensity and spectrums they could possibly ask for . Just the two Envirogrow 8 tube t5s are a combined 80thuosand lumens not adding the others , in just a 4×8 tent mostly enclosed as so all the light is trpped in there. ITs not that I am stating that all of Reserva Prevada’s Sour D fem seeds are this way . I love Reserva Prevada. I have a few other of theirs like the OG-18 Wheeppphhheeewwww its powerfully strog smellin. just like I like I can smell the plant and just know by the odor it is legitimately the real OG-18 so I gotta figure it was just this one fluke seed. In the way I have designed the new bedroom , I created a massive vacuum of air being pulled in the control tent where I will take each seed of each strain and flower them in a set by themselves in this powerful air in taking tent. This way 24-7 the constant force of intake air being pulled into this tent and then II have a brand new Can-Fan ^in charcoal filter hooked up to the 1000 watt illumitek hps directly venting out with two powerful Can-Fans one 8inch, one 6 inch , quite a bit overdoing but , I have to keep this control until I go through each strain and see how many are hermi genetically and then I will know if the place I got my seeds either jacked me or whatever. This way I can simply find out after spending like $3k over a couple years buying their seeds . I wont mention the name right yet but we will see just how many crappy seeds I actually have here. The atmosphereic conditions are perfect temp, humidity , air exchange, I am just using simple food GH 3part, with a couple additives like floralicious plus and kool bloom liquid and big bud. so nothing to Sycho. or stressing for these plants. I used this recipe 10 years back when I had a very stable trainwreck that was a stinker, always came out perfect every time was like clockwork 1,2,3 1,2,3 every single time so I am sure this recipe works well, I cut it in half and work it up so I try and take it easy on food so , hopefully guys with ALL this. I will get it figured out. For now I just saw that in my grow box with the sour d that has been in there for just over a couple weeks started out flowering nicely , all sugar coated ,, you know nice, and like I mentioned I just found a few male pod beginning flowers starting up when I pry back the flower, absolutely ridiculous, I just have to let this one go and go the next. I now have after ordering some new strains from same place the new Connoisseur Genetics East Coast Sour Diesel which now after smellin it , it smells like the real Sour Diesel I like best. I guess we will have to see how she goes. Hey I am quite sure I am going to get quite a bit of actual successful Reserva Prevada Sour D out of this run I just know there will be some that wont be completely right . Right now I have a couple that seems to be affected where the flowers already seem to want to shut down. where the rest of the crop seems to look Not too bad, they are looking pretty nice with quite a bit of sugar coating going on , so I am pretty sure that some , probably quite a bit of it actually WILL be good. It just happens so much it can’t be kept. Who knows I just may grab some new RP SD seeds from them and give er a try again. I’ll report back soon with a new update on my seed review. Good hearing form You Dani. The Dutchmaster which I have heard good reviews on seems to have had a positive effect. I mixed it EXACTLY to the recommended ratios. timing of spraying ,when to spray ,all of it , although I just think that genetically this situation with this seed I’ve used is just too over powerful. if you don’t get absolutely all the plants covered well and soaked good enough it may not take to all of them. Like I mentioned . I’m about going on three weeks here now soon and they look good so I figure the stuff must work to a degree, that’s if you want to spend 100 bucks a run just to try and battle a bad seeds genetics. There now is simply no doubt in my mind after spending as much time as I have with this seed (plant I chose for clones (mother) that it legitimately IS genetic. no question. There is no lingering pollen now , there is no pollen being thrown around in the air with any prior-ly used equipment , and now after taking this level of control of my air to my gardens , I will find out the true answer to whether I should buy seed from the place I have been going. Talk with you guys soon. That resin looks killer,, I’m jealous. I’ll get it soon enough. I’ve been wanting to make some of that live resin . I’ve read it’s the bomb. If I find out that after processing each strain through my atmospherically controlled grow box that They sold me a bunch of heri genetic seeds. I will post it likewise. this should isolate the situation and I should with some time be able to figure out just how many of these feminized seeds are hermi genetic prone. Its taken me quite a long time to work and figure all this out and I have no doubt gained quite an education in the past couple years.
Dani Alchimia 2015-11-02
Hi SteveO, I’m glad to read you have everything under control now, dude I’m starting to get a bit jealous, your setup must be spectacular. good for you. About the Sour Diesel. I have the Riri cut from Reservoir Seeds SD IBL, my favourite strain since I started growing it back in 2009. Stimulating, uplifting. it puts you in a good mood instantly, a priceless smoke for me. The taste and smell are incredible, very sour with strong diesel notes (some people say it also has lavender undertones). And it does develop few bananas at the latest stages of flowering, especially if you want it to be truly ripe. Fortunately, these few male flowers are not fertile, so it is just a matter of “appearance”. A shot of the SD Riri: Speak soon! 😉
What’s up Papa Indica and Dani. SteveO reporting back with much better news. I have been doing extensive research learning about the different led company’s out there and which one would give me literally the best QUALITY light with quality and power being my main interest. the light will have to have good power as well as intensity and extraordinary quality of light spectrum before I will put out a grand or more for a light that will be a couple hundred in a year or so. So after reviewing an unreal amount of different company’s . I checked everything from lumens to spectrum to light bulb power and intensity, to the amount of technology the company actually has working for them and how much effort do they put into producing the world finest full spectrum led light fixture. I reviewed so many, such as 1. kind led, thought theirs was probably one of the very best although when I watched the programming video it was like listening to someone talk Japanese to me. so that wouldn’t work I needed plug and play. 2.mars two 3. Advanced led 4. Platinum led 5. king led 6. Apollo 7.spydr led 8. illumitex 9. Black dog After looking as close as I could at these company’s, their pricing etc. I chose illumitex for my first panel led . I got the ns which is supposed to be an equal to a 600 watt hps. .. After that I also went ahead and ordered two grow tents both 4x8x7 and they rock. I now will isolate each strain in each tent on it’s own when they flower. as well I created a situation as follows. Coming to the front door of 10×10 bedroom , the first zipper entry you pass thru it . it is a plastic sheeted wall with two Shroom heap filters allowing air to come into room. now as I unzip and air is continuously being pulled in there, you go thru that first plastic liner with the zipper and now your standing in a 3×3 cordoned off cubical that your now standing in that has another zipper as well to go through . this is created with plastic sheeting as well that is completely sealed with duct tape around perimeter . so then you , zip behind you of course, now the air you standing in there with is consistently now being filtered as you stand there, well now you pass through the next one and this one has the same situation with ducting draped in u formation for air to pass through being filtered as well . so now as you go through that one , now your standing in the controlled air supply zone that has an air conditioner for temp control, and fresh air. Right now your in the bedroom where I have a 4×8 tent with two 4×8 t5 8tubers at both end with the list of leds in the center , a Gs8 led 420 watter , a ufo I just got for reds and deep reds, and the18inch x 3 ft long new state of the art created illumitexNs 300. Man I will not bs you guys , not one iota . The illumitex;s light when I first got It.I had my doubts when I plugged it in and saw that it just simply was nowhere near as bright as the 600 watt illumitex digital hps vented light that I set up literally right side by side to the other and began to flower in a 5×5 grow plywood framed GROW BOX that I crafted. I just got so exited waiting for the tents to arrive . I threw this box together. Well keep in mind I am a custom tile and stone mason for 27 years. there is nothing I cannot craft and build. So it came out pretty killer. So , so far now I have about 10 of those problematic Reserva Prevada’s sour diesel in the 5×5. and I had these lights in there together at first and made a little change . But for the about two weeks I had them in the grow box running together , I clearly started to see an absolute difference at what was going on, on each side. Now I know they ARE sharing light but that scientifically should’nt change the visual effects that should become apparent after a bit of time. Well after all of this I am now going to give you the nity grity. The illumitex light ‘s light produced plants on it’s side that over the trwo weeks became so dark green and oily that it became extremely clear to me that this light was absolutely unbelieveable. Then with that and after going to you tube and looking at everybody that I could find evaluating leds and then it was just obvious that if you have a good led company’s lights , you surely should destroy the hps’s quality. cant speak yet for production, but it seems to me that if the light your plants are receiving is light from a spectrum that allows the plants to literally USE all of the light , unlike a lot of the light that hps puts out then, that light will be the outperformer. I am amazed at how lush and green and like I said , the stems are just coated with oil form the plant excreting it. this is the result of the illumitex’s light spectrum of the plants, Absolutely incredible. On the Hps side , yeah there is great bud formation as to be expected, but the green in the plant is lightening up in a big way ad not becoming dark green ,oily and lush like the plants that are directly under the illumitex. Now I am only stating the facts. that cannot be disputed. I have although just lately found that after a lot of checking, that Mars two is probably going to be my next one, just to see the difference, This light offers a light spectrum that is complete, form Uv to Ir and deep reds and ,like I said just watch the vids of others who have used the mars. they seems to rock , just like the Black dogs.. But run a lot cheaper. We will see. If you want to see something that will without a doubt, blow your mind, go to you tube and type up illumitex, then go to the second page where you will find a video of illumitex’s manufacturing process. You watch that and then you tell me what you think . Its; like Alien Robotics of another planet. How do humans do this sh–. I am simply amazed. I found that watching these you tube videos on led’s , that I noticed a difference. Yeah you see a lot of killer hps vids with great buds etc, but if you watch closely enough , what you will start to recognize is that the leds are making hash tips. I mean fikkin not plant material , just simply stacked trichomes. That’s where I’m headed. I expect this will be the result of the 4×8 tent I have going with Strawberry Cough, Holy Grail Kush , Kong Diesel, Blueberry, and Skunk #1. I know I mixed this one a little, but the majority of the try is Strawberry Cough, which has been a great resin producer so far. The seed issue is being worked out I believe. So far , things look fine, not seeing seeds or the signs yet. Cross your fingers on the sour d. it has been incredibly resinous when it flowers , it sour d, and that’s why I keep giving it a chance. I have a new sour diesel strain that I will be switching to , due to just the fact that this one seems to have had issues in the past. I did however order the expensive product called Dutch master’s Reverse and also ordered the saturating agent to mix with it. you mix these two and spay immediately as it is supposed to chemically suppress the hermi gene in the plant. I only went with giving this try due to the good reviews it has on its track record. So far it seems like the plants are ok in there but Its a little too early to know for sure . It is good to hear from you guys. My wife and I are very private people and don’t keep too many friends , so it’s refreshing to have you guys to shoot the breeze with on this awesome , intricate hobby we’ve taken up. Thanks for your time and input, it is very much appreciated , Thanks Pap Indica and Dani Alchimia.
Dani Alchimia 2015-10-30
Hi SteveO, Good to see you here dude! I’m happy everything goes better know, from what I read it seems like you’ve really been working on a very professional setup. Great! I will definitely take a look at those LED systems, we are always trying to improve the quality of the products we offer, and your reviews and help is much appreciated. When speaking to growers who use or have used LED lights, they always have the same complaint: yields. They say they work great for growth, but yields (especially due to bad light dispersion) are usually lower than with HPS lamps. Still, I think all these guys here are using old systems, nothing to do with the ones I see at Illumitex website, especially regarding the shape and the quality of the LEDs. Few days ago a workmate from Alchimia made this absolutely amazing live resin from Reserva Privada’s Sour Diesel, the smell is just incredible. All the best, our regards to your wife! 😉 p.s. do not forget to tell us about Dutch Master’s Reverse when you try it!
Papa Indica 2015-10-10
High guys! I wish I still got notifications on this topic. SteveO, I apologize for getting a little unruly myself, it doesn’t solve anything. I’m really at as much of a loss on this as you at this point, as far as figuring out what’s happening there, you have a pretty crazy situation going. I know some of those breeders you mentioned make good seeds, so I don’t think that is an issue, certainly not to this extent. It sounds like you’ve got full quarantine procedures going there and still having this trouble. If it’s not getting pumped in from an outside source, by some outrageous coincidence, then I would think that you have got to be creating some stress to them with either atmosphere/environment or something that you’re feeding them, and causing some of them to turn and start producing male flowers and that’s where your pollen is coming from. Perhaps you are getting some of that tree pollen in there, along with the pollen from your herms it would make things look even worse. I hope you can get it dialed in bro, just keep trying to figure out what the culprit is, you’ll narrow it down eventually. Best of luck!
Raising the humidity of the room around the pollination weeks will help reduce pollination. Water makes pollen inert. I recently had a crop go Hermie polinated the plants leaving me with around a handful of seeds of a few plants. I washed with room down with a 5% bleachwater solution and on the next run I also took the precation of raising the humidity around weeks 3 (just for food measure) and I this time round I had 1 Hermie on me again (more than likley my fault) removed the male flowes and sure enough the bud was seedless this time round? (I was worried as my previous run basicly plstered the walls in pollen – last ones was female seeds lemon kush apparently a landrace that has a tendency to Hermie) my point is even tho it happened badly once and after cleaning and having a minor issue with one throwing male flowers out this run I still managed to crop seedless so the environment must have been clean from my less than thorough wash down. Also polen life span unless stored correctly isn’t very long so I would have thought by the time you vegged out any pollen remaining from precious Hermie’s would be minimal. Hope that helps
Dani Alchimia 2015-10-06
Hi Xrule, Thanks for your comment, any help is appreciated! From my own experience, many landrace strains do not react well to indoor grow rooms. They are strains used to grow outdoors, and once you put them under artificial lights it is not strange if they start developing male flowers. Indoor grows are very stressing for them unless they have been adapted to it through several generations. So, my first advice if you don’t want to have problems with hermie plants indoors is: always grow strains adapted to indoor grows! I’m breeding a Libanese line for the past years and every time I try them indoors they develop male flowers. Not a single banana when grown outdoors. All the best!
Thanks for the input Dani. The Led Lights I am purchasing are the Neosol NS 300. will be the first one I get. It has the light bars as you describe with Extraordinary high par. The same company makes one a little larger which I am getting a special deal to buy two . those are 2×4 ft the ns are 18in by 36 in but also has the Surexi Leds. These leds were tested and are used in every day growing for Colorado’s patients. After reviewing and reviewing these as well other lights , I found these to have the top rating besides knid leds which are literally baddass, totally programmable to the spectrums of the yearlong suns seasons. It allows a person at the touch of one button to control ll the lights hung at once, as well with the push of one button , they will get set off in a 8 week cycle of perfect lighting for medicinal marijuana plants needs. unreal right, well after it all I went with Illumitex. This company has built scyscrappers to grow food and vegies , as well medicine that is made for the medicinal world we live in , this review is amzing. so I went with them. Anyways. My air is set up with a bedroom , “first sealed, initially with duct tape in every corner, every lineal , da da da , and then the lights are pulling air thru them thru a can fan filter that leads out of the room thru multiple layers of plastic lining out to the opposing side of the entry. so to enter you got to the doorway unzip first zipper , step into 2×2 sealed area with 3 tubes 4 inch ducting bent over in u shape to ground to bring in air thru that which has two “shroom Hepa filters bringing in pulled air from air conditioner in room that also vent outside. So the air going into the bedroom is completely filtered so it may seem, until you go to enter, then it gets breeched. Pain in the ass. well After it all I think my genes ARE good. How would it have been possible for me to have had a flawless, SEEDLESS run two runs ago, but didn get flushed well so turned into has. well that kinda says to me that me genes are good, they may not come from reg seeds but for the most part if the atmosphere is good and it receives good clean filtered air, I truly believe in these seeds. I saw their first performance when I got them initially and I will tell you that the flowers were unreal til they couldn’t take the light leaking in anymore, then it all started. So its confusing to me. Here I am surrounded by a lot of trees and it extremely dry. I notice about this time of the year a lot of yellow polen on the cars from theses trees. I know this is immposible to affect ,my plants,not sure what to think now really. I just fugures I would go with getting some small grow tents and try to control the intake air better somehow. I really cant see how I could have had that good seedless run unless these seeds were legit. I haven’t read ANY bad reviews on Bonza. I guess we can only do our best and keep on truckin. Ill figure this whole thing out one way or another.I cant tell you how valuable it is to me to at least have some guys to help me now and then . so thanks Dani, Weed-ops, and not to mention Papa Indica for his great input, thanks, SteveO , gota go slay some stone today!
Dani Alchimia 2015-10-06
Hi SteveO, Yeah man, this type of leds is what I was talking about! Do not forget to tell us if they’re worth it! Perhaps trying with small grow tents will help, since you are going to use leds then heat won’t be a problem. About feminised seeds: a lot of crap has been said about these seeds, but they basically work as regular ones: if you used parents with hermie traits, then their offspring is going to show these traits too. As usual, it is all about choosing the right parents. Anyway: may I ask what strains are you growing? You always use seeds, or are you growing clones from those seeds now? Man I’m starting to take it as something personal, I really want you to grow sinsemilla again. 😉 All the best!
Oh yeah , since i’m on a roll. after so much studying, and reading , and reading, It is a fact that some of the worlds biggest and baddest growers go through extensive efforts to bring their humidity below 40 percent during the final weeks of flowering to trigger the marijuana plant to excrete more resin. So when I saw my humidity was getting down to 35 , 30, even 25 percent , yeah I thought it was a bit too dry but , if you know me I would mist them now and then to keep them with some moisture. The funny thing is , is that I being a person who grew up in Florida knows exactly what it takes to create the most perfect tropical environment, not to mention I worked on four country clubs,maintaining the golfcourse grass and planters for years when I was younger , so I have quite a green thumb. and like to think I am at least a little educated even though I don’t always check my spelling and punctuation. ,so after it all I think I’m gona head out for now. I am grateful for this blog. At least I got you guys to help me out now and then. Thanks once again ,SteveO
cont- you tell me My house is this little tiny dinky home I rent with bedrooms so small I would use them to raise my pet. ridiculous , who sleeps in a room this small. What did the builder do build a house for the Ringling Brothers Circus. like the clowns that come out of the car. I swear the rooms are lucky to be 8×8. Can’t wait to move to a house that actually has some room to work. I believe this is one of my biggest problems is I am literally completely cramped up in this little box thinking I’m gona get rid of the pollen. I believe the amount of pollen that has developed in this home is so much so that it sits in every crack and crany. so i’m at a loss. I can only clean the friggen this that is this small so many times before I literally rip my hair out. Do you folks out there think tents might help me gain some control over this crap. I swear now that I pretty much cleared the room of plant , there is like al layer of pollen everywhere in here, what a joke. to come so close to fixing this shit and now all over again. You know its insane cause I DID have a run with these strains with NOT one seed. Just after I painted and put the tile in . What a Joke! Ridiculous! Oh yeah did I tell you that also in the past year I had a homeless guy that literally jumped out in front of my turning truck , and when I had absolutely no time to move out of the way I struck him . I don’t drink , I wasn’t high or on drugs, in fact I was just slowly turning the corner when all the sudden bam there he is about a foot and ahalf in front of my truck. He then ran home immediately after the accident , called my insurance company to file full claim. So It hasn’t been the greatest year form me . All I want is to grow my own meds instead of buying the garbage they sell in the stores. You know , even through all the crap I go thru to do this , I will never kneel to the despensaries , they can sck m,,d. They’re bud is complete crap. Its as if they get a good strain and simply don’t feed it anything but water. Until I figure this all out I will just keep going, Never quit Period. Even The stuff I create is better than the crap they put out so I guess that’s what really matters,.
Dani Alchimia 2015-09-30
Hi SteveO, Glad to see you are back dude! From what you tell, I’m really starting to think that you do have a neighbour producing seeds or something similar. First think I would do: completely clean the room a couple of times and seal it (just how you seal a chamber for using co2). After that, I would line all intake/outtake holes with HEPA filters, as well as the outlet holes of the extraction/intraction fans. Notice that HEPA filters are relatively dense, so the airflow capacity of your fans will be lower with those filters. Make sure to keep the negative pressure in your room so you have no smell leaks. If I could, perhaps I would set up a “room” from which the air would come into the growing room; the air of that other “room” would be purified and filtered before coming into the grow room, it would not come directly from the outside, but purified and filtered before. Basically, the idea would be making sure that, if my room has pollen, then it comes from the inside and not from the outside. A silly question: you say you can actually see a layer of pollen inside your grow room. can you see pollen outside this room? In any other rooms of the house? About grow tents: they are very practical if you want to grow some plants and flower others in the same room, also for flowering strains with different photoperiods, and even for making seeds with different males. Always use HEPA filters in every hole. The bad thing about grow tents: environmental control is a bit more difficult, there is more heat to be removed and fluctuations in humidity levels are more pronounced. About LEDs: While much more expensive than HPS lamps, they truly save money with every power bill. Lately I’ve tried a 600W LED system in a 1,2×1,2m space (about 3×3 feet). All buds from the central area developed perfectly, but all side buds and lower buds developed poorly. I think that using some sort of LED strips or enlongated systems would work better to have a more uniform distribution of light, even putting lights in the walls so all side parts of the plants have enough light to produce decent buds. While I think LED’s are the future, I still haven’t seen the same exact results than those seen with HPS systems. As I told you, I was in a fair a couple of weeks ago and many new LED systems had enlongated designs to cover more surface area, what I think is a very good idea. We’ll see how they work. Best vibes!
what about Silver Collodium, you know the stuff they SPRAY their plants with to make feminized seeds. why wouldn’t there be or, couldn’t there be a chemical that would suppress the hermaphrodite gene. According to what I have heard people say abou the product reverse is that is works well . I now have this product and will be sraying it exactly on the seventh day and then 10 days later. I will follow thru with the results. Should be very interesting to see if it does. My garden I swear to god is just like the tv series , the strain. remember just lately there was one of their shows where all the mutants are running straight past this one dude whos just simply not being affected. I DO have a couple strains that seem to be just like that one dude. I mean Im sitting here after having wiped out the 30 plants that chainreacted and became pollinated, and finally get to the one that’s been siiting in front of the inline fans intake air , as well being swished around by the two oscillating fans , that are clearly blowing pollen everywhere In the room , all the while sits “Greenhouse Seeds”Super Silver Haze, not to be confused with my Delicious seeds strain critical ssh. Either way , honestly it seems that both of these plants are quite resistant to the havoc that’s taking place around them. I find it absolutely unbelievable that , that plant could sit in that room with that many plants being affected and it just sits there completely untainted. Too bad its not one of my favorites. So far after having purchased some 60 odd strains , I now DO have a handful of them that appear to be strong and ones that I will try to work with, they are delicious seeds Cotton Candy, this starin is super sweet, killer strain, not sure yet but reserve prevada’s sour diesel, Delicious Seeds Critical ssh, Strawberry Cough, Reserva Prevada OG-18, this one is badass, total stinky and resinous, time will tell. Wish me luck Going to give it another whirl here pretty soon in new room without so much air movement and more controlled. Also going to tyr the Product reverse, so I will let everyone know how it goes. I will tell you that if you look back at a few of my posts I posted a little while back , you’ll see that I DID manage to , after I changed carpet for tile and new paint , I DID have a round without ANY Seeds from those exact same starins. And I mean NO SEEDS So Im the idiot, just a tileman, anyone out therewith a agricultural degree, maybe you can give me some idea as to what or how to resolve this pollen problem I’m experiencing. I have retiled , repainted, redone, overdone, undersone, bought this equipment , bought that equipment, tried this , tried that, filtered air , blew in more air , co2d the air , kept a gorgeous atmosphere./
What really gets to me is that I can remember like it was yesterday when I got these seeds. I went , grew them , they looked badass all thick and full and lush and pure female looking plants, then I went to flower , all looked absolutely incredible, evry plant was blasting buds and pistols . I was growing them in drip buckets , so they were nice and mature, in flower they al got to be about 3 ft or so nice and thick with buds, and then I started to see problems . about five weeks into flower , the plants just couldn’t take the light leaks anymore, and they started making seeds. well I had never had this problem before .. I grew at the other house and had no problem.. Ive been a tile and stone mason for going on thirty years now , so my back is in shambles. I come home every day feeling like an nfl football player after a intense game of being beaten. so thru my battles, and all im trying to do is grow my own frikkin meds. im not trying to get rich , or to become a drug dealer. just want to be successful growing my own frikkin meds.I had no trouble when I was under the radar, now that I’m doing everything completely legal its a frikkin nightmare. So , like I said I was good at growing at the other house . no problems. but I only had one strain that was given to me. so I knew I had a good plant. And it was in a basement which is easier to blackout. The problem I had in the new house with the new seeds is that for the five weeks that THOSE seeds grew and flowered , I had been allowing light to leak in from multiple places, like all over the fikkin place, so I freaked out and immediately went into action , sealing everything up, constantly throwing away tainted plants as fast as I could produce them, due to them going hermi. I was killing them, and still am as fast as they get tainted. Until I find the culprit , I will continue to rid the bad ones. I found one plant as weird as it seems ,” Delicious seeds critical super silver haze, that , every time grow long armlong buds and now im in there rubbing my hands up and down the bud and I cant see any seeds, or and male flowers ,buds smell nice, but the bud is literally coated with dust, and i’m sure its not dust from being dirty, it pollen dust, so you tell me how that’s possible, no seeds, no male floweres on it , smells good , seems to be nice long bud , but dry and powdery with what I believe to be pollen dust. For the first five weeks of flowering, they were the best flowering plants I had ever had, so I am having a hard time believing its the seeds, cause I can tell you that I know for a fact that if I was to order a bunch more feminized seeds from bonza and grew them , then flowered them , the result would be the same until the pollen gets ahold of them. I just cant seem to figure out WHERE its originating from. for all I know some asshole is next door making fcking seeds for a living. gee maybe I should go into seed making, id be much more successful. So once I stared realizing I had an issue I went online and started actually learning how to do all of this, only to end up having the worst luck the whole time. All I’m saying is that all I can remember is that these plants , these, strains , initially came up and were the most incredible plants I had ever grown until I -realized from educating myself on the computer that light leaks will cause your good female flowering plants to hermaphrodite into hermis. Well obviously I was too late to learn ,cause for the past , now one full year, I have yet to eradicate this pollen development in my house.
Hey guys, SteveO here. Also going to switch to leds. Anyone out there have any reviews on which one I should pick . ive been looking at kind led , lumitex led , and the spydr 600. Does anyone have any experience with these lights . which is the best ultimately, there are many mixed reviews ,making it tough for me to decide. this will solve my high electric, my heat issues, also it will help me take a lot more control of my air instead of using massive suction and filters to tyr and filter the air so much that , that is what was most likely driving my humidity down , ,that compiled with four window air conditioners. Im starting to think the pollen is coming out of the ac or maybe my inline fans. somehow , one way or another , the pollen is coming from somewhere, I just have to find out where. So if I get leds and I wipe out my 500-600 dollar a month power bill, and then I don’t have to vent tons of heat , and if I buy tents , through all of this , and separating the strains and growing and flowering them one at a time, ill figure out where its all coming from. Then Ill be broke. But Ill have my meds. 🙂
Hey Weedops, I appreciate the input. Thanks I am going to isolate the strains and grow them one or two at a time to catch the instigator . All this is, is Science 101. I simply have to separate the genes , work with them one at a time and Ill figure out which one is my nightmare. I did very well in math and particularly science, so I am going to take a step back and think this thing thru. I am also changing up the rooms I the hopes of figuring this thing out. Thanks Everybody!SteveO
Hey Papa Indica and Dani Alchimia, SteveO here. I apologize for my psychotic episode . I have relentlessly continued to grow these strains I received from Bonza seeds which are a list of seeds supposedly from reputable breeders such as Dna Genetics, Delicious Seeds etc. Well I think you guys are right about this whole thing. Dani. you hit it right on the nail on the head, when you mentioned to me to try someone else’s seeds and if the problem continues than I would know the problem is in my house, if I solve the problem then that will prove that the seeds I got from Bonza were in fact hermi genetic prone seeds. I want to say I am vey thankful that you guys DID take your time to help me out, I truly am appreciative, You must realize I bought these seeds right at one year ago this October, and since then have yet to come up with a real quality end result as well paid like almost $2,000 for them at about 15 to 20. per seed. well I have news for Bonza. Every time , I mean EVERY single time I try and flower, the crop seems to somehow get pollinated. After all the craziness I went thru putting in tile and paint, the problem still exists. I just went in the room to do some cleaning and lifted up one of the fans and underneath the fan the plastic has deep tracks well there is literally a coating , a layer of evil male pollen in a pretty good amount. I have found so far a situation where I go inspecting everything I can possibly see and I have found the little pollen making flowers digging themselves into the buds practically making it impossible to find. A person would literally have to dig thru the bud to find this happening it seems to me. I guess what I am saying is exactly that Dani. I would Like to find the culprit. Which one is actualy doing this. well I can tell you this. I do have a few strains that seem to be very resistant to becoming pollinated. One is Strawberry cough, I got thisone from a friend and he kicks ass with it. It is Soo sweet and flowers like mad in the beginning til it gets jacked up by the enemy somewhere in the room. Hee Hee. I am going to change it up and switch rooms, at the same time I am going to keep a high intake air flow going to the old room all the while giving the new room good fresh “can fan” filtered air. I saw a you tube video of a guy with two rooms with only a door separating them and in the one room was his pollinating room for pollinating his girls, the one on the opposite side of the door had flawless untainted , un pollinated plants with big buds ,blew me away, simply could see how he could have the pollen that close to uninfected plants, just right next door on the other sideof the door. He mentioned In the video that the way he accomplishes this is the pollination room has a lot more intake air to that room , that gets evacuated, I watched this video and for the life of me cant understand why i seem to not be able to stop this issue. I am very persistent and will continue till I’m dead in the ground. So here goes , next round I’ve taken only two strains, less plants to manage as well , and I am scrogging them so I can watch the canopy closer, instead of having to work so hard underneath. I WILL get this and just want you guys to know I am grateful for your input, I’m also going to get some different seeds. Tired of this . its got to be genetic. I’m going to make them regular seeds this time and sex them ,may take a little more time , but the genes will be much more solid. I am also going to be getting separate tents. Thanks again
Papa Indica 2015-09-24
I was getting email notifications when there was a new comment here so I wasn’t checking it unless I got an email, apparently that stopped happening because I didn’t get anything about any of these last comments. What you’re saying about people is exactly how you’re being now SteveO, we’ve done everything to try and help you, no, I didn’t know about some spray because I wouldn’t be using any of that kind of stuff. Now you come back and act like no one gives a shit about your problem?! I certainly don’t know everything about growing, anyone who says they do is either a liar, or just too blind to see past the end of their nose but, I certainly put every effort forth to try and help you from what knowledge I do have, which has been enough to harvest some very respectable weed time after time. I guess we thought you wanted to remedy the problem, not throw a band-aid over it, if that was the case why didn’t you search for something like that a long time ago? Why the hell would I know about it? I believe I’ve mentioned I haven’t had those issues myself. At this point it’s sounding like a combination of terrible humidity levels and slightly low temps, (which you never bothered to mention before, how many places stay around 75-76 degrees with 25% humidity through the summer?), and using shit seeds. From there I guess you’re on your own, I don’t need to spend time trying to help people out just to get abuse for it.
Hey , EVERYBODY WITH HERMI PROBLEMS. DON’T GO THRU WHAT I DID. Many times in life we find people are wrapped up in their own worlds and seldom are trustworthy and half the time they give you false or misinformation. I have spent an extraordinary amount of time working to perfect my grow as I am someone who wishes to produce the finest product possible. it may take me a while longer than some to master this , though through my continuous efforts, I can assure you I will succeed . If you want the ANSWER TO ALL YOUR HERMI PROBLEMS , JUST GO ONLINE AND PURCHASE DUTCHMASTERS REVERSE ANBD MAKE SURE TO ADD SATURATOR. I went to the hydro ponic store and bought switch,and while at the store, again the customer service guy was too wrapped up in his own thoughts then to give me a completed two bottle treatment of switch and transport,, he sent me home with just the switch and after a long days workand driving forever back and forth to the store , when I got home , what do you think I did , I sprayed the switch straight, well it burned them a bit, didn’t like,just like I said , had the guy given me the proper stuff ,I would have solved this problem a long time ago. As well the point I am trying to make is it took me months of problems to finally realize , no one was actually going to give me the RIGHT answers, I had to figure it out myself. Everyone toots their horns instead of being humble. Nowehere on this page from ALCHIMIA do you hear them advise you to buy this product as GEE , THIS WOULD ACTUALLY SOLVE YOUR HERMI PROBLEMS FOR GOOD, GEE WHAT A CONCEPT! GOOD LUCK TO GOODHEARTED GROWERS. PEACE.
Dani Alchimia 2015-09-16
Hi again SteveO, I personally believe that hermie problems are not to be solved by spraying plants with products made from unknown ingredients. From what I’ve seen and experienced, 90% of times hermie problems come from hermie genetics. Environmental factors can also make your plants to develop few bananas. But I believe that you should know the source of your problem and not try to use a “stop-gap” solution. If your problems come from the seeds you grow, you should stop having them when using other seeds. If the problem persists no matter what seeds you grow, then you have a problem in you grow (light leaks, etc.). But I don’t believe in these type of products: if I have a serious headache, I want to know its source, not take a ton of aspirins. I’ve searched for the composition of this product and can’t find it anywhere, so I would never spray my plants with that. It’s up to you. All the best!
Thanks for the feedback . ill go to another blog where there are decent folks who actually want to help people, thanks for nothing Alchimia!
Dani Alchimia 2015-09-16
Hi SteveO, I’ve been in a fair for almost one week, please do not get mad bacause I didin’t reply your comment immediately. 25% is too low, you should try to raise that level to 50-60%. Your plants will develop much better and pests will find it harder to attack them. Weedops, I usually keep a humidity of 60-70% during the pre-flowering stage and gradually lower it to 50% before harvest (to avoid mold issues when plants have buds already developed). All the best!
in flowering 50-60% humidity. a trick im gonna be experimenting with soon is raising the humidity levels to mid 70s randomly throughout the flowering cycle for an hour or 3, so the plant thinks its raining. ive done similar stuff before and trust me this isn’t the same as misting your plants while in flower. doesn’t give a mold smell and doesn’t induce mold, but instead it actually makes the buds more plump, juicy and the trichome heads are just ready to explode with resin.
yeah I would think 25% is too low. I don’t know the exact numbers but I know optimal humidity is between 40-60% a little more or less wouldn’t hurt but ive never heard anyone with 25% humidity. if that’s been going on the whole grow id say that is another source to your hermies. cannabis likes heat more than cold and that would also mean it likes higher humidity compared to lower. if I were you Id be trying to get that humidity up TODAY good luck with everything steveo
O.k. Guys I think I may have been looking a little too far into my situation. seems everything looks good,all plants are flowering nicely. I know ive drove you a bit nuts ,so I appreciate the patience. I believe that one could understand how difficult the task would be to go through thirty flowering plants at every single bud site EVRY single day in order to catch that one possible opening male pollen hermi pod. I understand from experience that these little 1/8 inch diameter sized pollen sacs can develop in as short a time as a day, so one WOULD essentially have to inspect each and every single flower site if they were in this situation. I DO appreciate you guys helping me out , so thank you much. I have one simple question if its not a bother. what is the lowest optimal humidity level for flowering plants. At what level does it become too low. My flower room , due to the extreme ventilation I am processing in there to get a grip on my air , seems to be taking my humidity levels down to 25 percent. Is this too low? Thanks again.
and another thing I might be doing wrong is underwatering. Im either watering perfectly or just slightly underwatering which may be causing this maybe you are too? im gonna try watering them when the are a little bit heavier than I would before and see if that helps
another thing I forgot to mention is the first plant I had to male was a mystery strain so it could’ve been bag seed. the other plant that maled was a sativa and sativas are much easier to hermie from stress. the dream machine is mostly indica and indicas are roughhouses which may explain why that one was able to withstand my fuck ups throughout the grow. im gonna keep everyone updated. I hope everything gets better for you steve o. if you were around MA id smoke you up for not giving in. but trust me youll still be making more money than losing if you keep growing. just try different things. don’t expect the pollen to dissipate and die off if that’s what is causing this CHEERS EVERYBODY
just an update, so I had 2 plants in flower after these 2 autos. the biggest plant in flower that was mislabeled so idk the strain, turned out to be a nice healthy male. after that plant showed male I put the biggest plant I had in which was y griega. I was so excited cause I mainlined for the first time and the griega turned out AWESOME with what would’ve been 16 monstrous colas. this was the plant that showed obvious male pods in veg so idk why I was so excited but it was a fem seed so I was mislead. he started showing bunches of seeds like 2 days later, so fast cause there was already pods developed before 12/12. the other plant which was dream machine, by heavyweight I believe was put in before the griega but just showed the first pistil. IM ESTATIC, I just hope there isn’t any pollen floating around until later today when I pick up some things for the room. a friend of mine that’s been growing for 20+ years recommends sensible seeds, but if youre not getting more seeds he was also saying how you shouldn’t even be using most nutrients like everyone does. just a few key ones like ca mag and a couple others. he says its much cleaner taste and I forgot what else he said but I would guess nutrients play a big role in affecting the plants genes. you should give that a go maybe try a couple diff techniques on different plants and see if its something along those lines that’s messing you up this bad. if that doesn’t work the only other explanation is floating pollen or bad seeds. so if the other suggestions don’t work I suggest you buy more seeds before you start waste every last bit of the 2000$ you already spent. and finally if the new seeds do the same thing the ONLY explanation is floating pollen. and in that case theres a bunch of smarter options you can take rather than quitting growing. 1 option would to be try a diff room in your house, try as far away from old room as possible. if that doesn’t work, maybe try one plant or even just take a clone and flower it after a couple days after it gets roots just to see if its female, and grow it out all the way until you get 1 smokeable bud. if that plant hermies in the new room with the new seeds(you can try using the old seeds in new room but if it hermies that still leaves the option to buy seeds) then the next best thing to do would be grow in your PARENTS house. and if not try another close FAMILY member. if desperate use a friends house and make a deal with him. theres still some other things you can do too, but if youre still gonna smoke you shouldn’t quit growing. buying weed vs growing weed= you still haven’t lost more money in your grows than you would buying weed for the rest of your life
hey steve o we both seem to be having seed problems right now, hopefully I can shed some light onto your problem. I have no idea where I went wrong with my crop.. wait yeah I do, but now ive just realized that I caused this problem. some definite problems I had was 1. light leaks from mesh flaps and the red and green light from timer 2.relativley high heat and high humidity due to growing in basement 3.growing bag seed outside that all popped up with pistils but now may have seeds because im not in the right time zone to be growing outdoors.(or they are genetically hermie) haven’t noticed any sacs on these plants but since 2 of my indoor fems just turned out to be male im expecting the worse 4. which im most worried about which is I fucked up the lighting schedule a couple times back in the veg stage. we had a timer but I never used a timer before and this other guy didn’t know how to use it so we were using the timer for only the light sockets for awhile. so the extra dark and extra light they got on separate days may have been what caused the genetic mutation the ONLY sign of a pollen sac throughout this whole grow was spotted by this dumb ass Ireland bilingual guy im growing with. he thought he saw a sac on an autoflower one day so he ripped it off and like the dumb asss he is didn’t think to show me to put me, the grower at ease. till this day im still not convinced he found a sac because I never spotted any and im the one there inspecting everyday. nonetheless I chopped that plant down, but I was completely unsure if the sac was there, never mind thinking about if the sac had opened which he didn’t know for sure either. anyways I was content with everything after I rid that auto. come a couple weeks later for a diff auto that was sitting next to the “hermied” auto, as it started drying out I started noticing little brownish black specs inside the calyxs. these things looked like fully developed seeds but they are literally smaller than a grain of salt, literally. so im not sure if these are acutally seeds from getting pollinated.. someone mentioned it could be from letting the plant go too long? anyways that brings me to one of my sativas showing male preflowers while in veg, I mean these “ball on a stick” things were as plain as day on my vegging plant. I never heard of preflower in veg and there wasn’t a whole lot on it so I decided to roll the dice and keep growing the plant even though the preflowers looked just like balls on sticks, im not experienced enough to know on the spot which is which so that’s why I decided to keep it until I threw it into flower cause it was my biggest crop and I wasn’t sure if preflowers in veg gave a different look than in flower and what not. so with that said I left it growing(keeping a semi close eyes on these balls to see if they bunched up, like I know the males to look) and now im not sure if this is what opened up and pollinated my grow PREFLOWERS IN VEG. either way I guess I have a better idea of what caused mine than yours. just think of everything you give these plants. a thing I would say to do is try giving them LESS ATTENTION. you could be hounding your plants like I do sometimes a maybe you could be stressing them along the way. either way this is one of the best forum discussions ive seen so let me know whats up steve o and papa indica
Yo whats up guys. Hey Papa Indica,, how it goin Dani. Man this is crazy ,,you guys know my story. Well I ended up after all you guys know taking out the carpet and putting in tile to eliminate possible built up pollen etc in the carpet, and painted, also came out of the bedrooms with tile and paint,, I then went and continued using the Bonza seeds ( same strains) all feminized seeds, and had a run where I had ZERO SEEDS,, GREAT RIGHT? Yep That is great , cause it tells me that I CAN grow these strains successfully with a quality atmosphere. so . that run I wasn’t completely happy due to my overfeeding and lack of flushing,so I at least now knew that I could actually use these strains and that what it told me was. was that I am carrying on using feminized seeds that do carry the hermi gene, so one has to be careful not to have any issues to trigger them into hermism. So I was god with that until now I changed the room around after that good round and knew that with my luck something would happen. well it must have stirred up something, I don’t know . now what I have is several plants about thirty flowering ,different strains in flood and drain tables along a bedroom wall with 4 600 watt lights in line . I also have two can filters ,one blowing in filtered air in the room, another standing up straight pointed at ceiling like I think you have Papa, to filter room air and create movement of air. also have air conditioner to control temperature for night and day so temp never fluctuates more than a few degrees , my humidity is around 35 to 40 percent nice and low for flowering no more spraying with room temp consistent at 75-76 degrees, then when lights go off (they’ve been working properly now) I set the air conditioner to 74 degrees ,so you see my atmosphere seems flawless, I wish someone had an answer for me, cause remember Papa how just lately I said I caught a timer malfunctioning? I fixed that and have new plants in there now and I have found that a huge 2 ft x 3 ft diameter big blueberry was in second week flowering,, had good pistol formations starting but found at the internode under the bud was a few beginning seeds forming. so I went through thoroughly and plucked them off while most of the other plants , since I fixed the timer are pretty much new in there, well now I find a sour diesel had a male flower that seemed to have opened, and got rid of it . my issue isthat now that blueberry is absolutely wicked badass. absolutely loaded with buds and quality pistol formation now in the third fourth week, you know the one that stared out with some seeds,, well now the blueberry went and took off like arocket while all the rest of most of the plants that are now starting to show pistols ALL ARE SHOWING LITTLE PINHEADED SEEDLIKE PODS where two pistols are popping out of,and if I pluck one off and pry it open , I find a beginning seeds thet is the size of a head of a pin. extremely small,,now im finding that most of the plants are displaying this, Basically , you know where you normally see on both sides of the stem at the internode two pistols po out on botgh sides,well on these ones that are not right what they are displaying is ,yes I get the pistols one one side and the other side ,youll see the little pod with two pistols popping out with a tiny microscopic size seed forming. now ive found that some of the plants seem to be moving towards the female direction even with these one them while others seem to be shutting down, pistols curl up and pistols just stop growing and you can tell the plant has been affected and doesn’t make any more bud and moves toward turning male,those I pull out, but whats going on here? Do you guys think my genetics are just weak ass genetics or what. Ive ordered some killer regular seeds which I will properly sex , as to elimate the hermi gene, maybe this will be the way to go , I bought these seeds almost one year ago and I have yet to have actual good quality results. You know what is really driving me crazy is that Bonza has a stellar reputation, and when I first got he seeds grew them , they were gorgeous and then I set them into flower , and I can tell you that every single starins flowered profusely , like unreal quality until I foolishly set them off towards hermaphroditism with the light leaks I hadn’t been paying attention to. God if I could only go back to when I first got these seeds , I would have made sure to not have light leaks. Ever since that happened I have not been able to get a grip on this pollen problem.Ahhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh Anyone have a clue what my plants are doing?
Papa Indica 2015-08-31
Hello Harvest Queen, As Dani said, your plant may be hermaphrodite and seeded itself. If you can’t find any sign of male flowers anywhere on the plant then there’s a chance that the seeds are good. The male flowers can potentially be right inside of the buds. Being a clone has nothing to do with whether or not the seeds are feminized, it’s about what pollenated it. If your plant is not hermied then the only thing you can do to know what you have is to run a test seed and see what you get. You may get a hermie, you may get a female but, even getting a female doesn’t necessarily mean that you have feminized seeds, they may be regular seeds and you get lucky with the draw. Feminized or regular, the important thing is not to have hermaphrodite plants in your grow. Best of luck!
Harvest Queen 2015-08-29
A friend gave the a Sour Diesel clone plant. She has been grown outside in a 15 gallon pot and is doing well, full of nice buds which are covered in trichones which are starting to change color. Now I am noticing seeds forming here and there and my question is since this was a clone, will the seeds be feminized? Thanks!
Dani Alchimia 2015-08-31
Hi Harvest Queen, Notice that you might have a clone of a hermie plant! You should carefully look for male flowers in your buds. If you find some of them, then those seeds probably come from these flowers. If you don’t find any male flowers, than those seeds must come from a male or hermaphrodite plant near your plants, so there is no way to know if those seeds will be feminized. All the best!
Thanks Papa Indica, that’s what I figured . will do . thanks for helping me out once again.
Papa Indica 2015-08-24
I’m gonna try this again, last time I tried to reply the blog wouldn’t let me. Sorry to hear that you’re still having bad luck SteveO, let’s see if I can help. Anyone knowledgeable about marijuana is going to tell you that the pollen comes ONLY from the male flowers, and the ONLY thing that can CREATE seeds is that pollen landing on a female. It sounds to me like you had already pollenated your grow before you pulled those out, and you shouldn’t have put anything else in there until it was all cleaned up again. Once that pollen is released into your environment it’s going to be all over your plants, any fans in there will help see to that. When you move a new plant into that environment it’s pretty easy for it to pick up some pollen, even without moving anything around, but once you start handling those plants that already have pollen sitting on them you stir it up into the air again and then you’ve got pollen on the new ones too. You need to get everything out of there, (I’d recommend finishing what you have, without putting anything new in your flower room), then give that area another cleaning. You don’t need to go to the extremes of pulling flooring or anything, just a good, thorough cleaning. As long as you have your lighting issues fixed so that you won’t be stressing them into changing you should be good to go again after that. Best of luck SteveO!
Hi Papa Indica , and Dan Alchimia,,SteveO here. I am still stumped on this one issue. I am having a seed issue again. went in and searched thru every nch of the plants the best I could to find any male flowers on plants , as to locate to hermi pollen crating plant problem to try and prevent the rest of the plants in the room from being hit. wel I found I think two maybe three that had maleflowers. , I pulled them out , and got rid of them , and now over the past four days or so have been doing a lot of inspections continuously to try and catch any more that could be there that I may have n=missed that are subject to infecting other new plants in the room. well I haven’t for the life of me been able to find and more (actual male flowers) but the seeds keep coming,now pretty much most of the plants in the room have seeds and it continues to get worse each day, once a plnat gets one seed then it gets another , and another, and before you know it , it stops making nay more pistols and resin and seed take over , little clusters of seeds start to form. I tried to leave plants that only seemed to have a few seeds , and going along I continuously inspected them very closely to search for those male flowrs and I have been able to find nothing but continual seed development without any male flowers , now I just put a new blueberry plant in ther and I t was untouched for days , got to flowering , seemed to be ok, and bam a couple seeds. I simply connot find the culprit. It sure does seem from my years of experience that,, it is poosible for a fertilized female that has gotten pollinated can spread pollen somehow WITHOUT male pollen sacks. now I could be wrong , but every time , the result seems to be the same. I start to get seeds, then I search for male flowers on female plants(hermis), then I eradicate tose, and it always happens every time , that more plants ill continue to get pollinated and before long the whole garden gets affected. Now I have yet to find someone out there who can resolve or anwer how this is poosible,. Do you think that I am simply just NOT finding the other hermaohrodite plant? or are the pollinated females able to spread seeds in some other fashion , because, im telling you I can find all the seeed in the world on these plants , but I for some reason SIMPLY CANNOT FIND MALE FLOWERS, WHAT GIVES? Every time I have this problem , the results always seem to be identical. I seem to find the hermi plant or plants, and still the affected pants seem to continue to spread the pollination SOMEHOW,. I need someone to help me with this. now there are about 10-15 plants in the flower room. most now just placed in there . I believe I have gotten rid of the actual hermi plant or plants. will the new onesi just put In there be ok. or do you think I need to go through a thorough cleaning again? This is absolutely driving me insane.Other that whats crazy is that I had this problem resolved as the last run I had no seeds, and then my timer for my lights stared to take a dump and lights went on wrong times,creating the problem again while I would be at work. so now here I am once again trying to deal with pollen problem again. Any info out here would be much appreciated. I did however Papa Indica, get some killer hash oil and shatter put together from what little bit I have been able to successfully grow. Hope all is well your way. I will say thins are getting better quality wise all around . now that I have resolved the light timer issue .. I have gotten rid of , or harvested a little early the bulk of the problem flowering plants, do you think I need to take the room and clean everything. I have gone In there and sprayed tap water all over to soak everything In the hopes of neutralizing the lingering pollen. will this do or should I clean up everything is the question. Sure is a pain to have to take everything down.
Papa Indica 2015-08-21
Well, for your first question, I always harvest according to the trichomes. I’ll snip a little piece of leaf from close to the bud and look at it under a scope, I generally start the final phase when I see that the majority of the trichomes are milky. You can actually see the change in bud color when they reach that point but, I always check anyway. It’s pretty common for me to have a few lower leaves die and drop off throughout flowering but, I never get to a point where there’s any big die off. For the second question, no, using water from a different source wouldn’t stress your plants like that. And finally, yes, that has got to be the problem. If you’ve got lights coming on at odd hours, (especially during lights out), then that would definitely cause problems. They’re getting light stressed. That’s probably been the issue for a while from what you’ve been saying. It shouldn’t take going to the extremes that you have to get rid of a little pollen, in my opinion. Yes, you may have to diligently clean your area but, you’ve gone way beyond that. I’d say that you should clean up your grow room well, without going to extremes, get your power on/off straightened out, and go for it again. You get that light issue straightened out and I think you’ll start having much better luck. The woman in your garden store is right, to a certain extent. The way feminized seeds are created does make them more susceptible to hermaphroditism than regular seeds but, for as long as I’ve been growing I’ve used nothing but feminized seeds so far and I’ve never had an issue. I did have that one turn on me but, I know that it was my own fault, I light stressed it just like you’ve done. Luckily what I was doing only exposed that one to the light and not the others or I would’ve screwed up my whole crop. A little amendment to my earlier posts, I’ve found four seeds so far out of this new crop. Since they came from a Cataract Kush and the pollen came from a stress-turned Cataract I’m hoping they’ll be good feminized seeds. When the time comes I’ll run one as a test. I already did a test run on a seed that came from the hermied plant although I was already quite sure what the result would be, and I was right, full-blown hermie. I figured it was worth a try, if nothing else, just to see it for myself. I’ve got four or five seeds that came from a 8-Ball Kush that was lightly pollenated by that Cataract in the same crop that I’m going to try at some point also. My middle son is actually growing a couple of those outdoors right now and he says they’re looking good so far. If they do come out alright I’m calling it Cat Balls Kush. 🙂 Good luck SteveO, I think you’ve got your problem dialed in now. It would be great if you joined Firestax so you could post some pics. If you get over there you’ll see that I keep a pretty small grow, it’s all I can handle with my disability, but what I do grow, I try to give them hell. Dani actually got me over there and I’m glad he did, haven’t been there long but, great bunch of people.
Hey Papa Indica, just figured out that one of my plug bars was taking a dump and two of the center 600 watt lights were coming on and off at wrong times. I bet this was a part of the issue. Hope things are going well for you, hope to hear from you soon. Take er easy.
Oh , yeah , today I was at work and was thinking to myself how I would come on here and state , oh , its not my genetics,, and my atmosphere is dialed in , and so I had to laugh , cause there is no other option , its either one or the other and , here I was expecting someone to give me an answer other than those two.Ahh hers one for you. Do you think that hermis could be triggered from me having switched from feeding the plants filtered water, and then tired from work one day, came home and needed to do a water change,, got lazy, and set up the new water with just tap water , do you think this would cause the plants to get stressed enough to hermi?
Yooo,, Papa Indica SteveO here. I couldn’t agree with you more. I have been extracting the bud that , honestly isn’t as bad as I make it out to be. I am just extremely picky with my bud and am working to get to a certain quality level simply just to satisfy my own medicinal needs. I can tell you that you should see to clear translucent gold oil wax that comes out of the overfed bud that I have been extracting. it is incredible. One hit sh-t . total expantion in your lungs type quality so I know . I’m gona get this. Just gota keep hammering away at it. Just have to go thru long time frames with this hobby to work each glitch out. I had a woman at one of the garden stores I shop at that has a horticultural degree told me I need to work with regular seeds and sex them and to stay away from feminized seeds to eliminate the hermi genetics that lie within the feminized seeds. Feminised seeds are great if you have a flawless operation and you don’t make any errors. but make a couple mistakes and be prepared for the nightmare male pollen creation ride of your life. I have worked with these strains for about the past year and sometimes I find I get seeds on them and sometimes I do not , so I gota figure it has to be me, and something I am doing to stress them enough to go hermi. I know that reserva prevada and greenhouse seeds have a stellar reputation and before I planted any seeds, I did a thorough inspection to make sure I saw a nice formed round crater at the end of the seeds where it separates from the plant , and this is a practically 100 percent guaranteed way of determining a true female seed , so I have learned and so far , this has proven accurate. You know Papa Indica how I said before I couldn’t find any male seed pods . well , obviously the pollen had to develop from somewhere initially,,and that means that there HAD to be a hermi , I just wasn’t locating. I actually had to pull back the little lower buds all the way to where I was ripping it from off the plant , and low and behold a frikkin male pollen flower that had opened, and then I found another oine, and another. not good. Anyways I have some absolute unreal Honey oil/ wax extract that came from my strawberry cough and my og-18 strains. I will say that the strawberry cough, I have seen its results from the guy that gave me that plant., and the results are extraordinary without a doubt,, pure strawberry odor . big time and flower heavily the length of the stem loaded with sweet georgeous white pistols. absolutely amazing strain, . I am sooo close to nailing this strain, Kyle Kushman’s Strawberry Cough , along with the Reserva Prevada OG-18,as well Reserva Prevada Sour Diesel ,, these are just a few I am close to getting down rock soilid. I just gota figure out what I doing to stress these strains that I know can grow successfully if done properly. Just can’t quit when I am this close. When referrig to the oil/ wax , you know what they say ,that your oil/wax,, will be the result of the quality of the bud,. So if I am getting the quality level that I AM looking for in oil/wax from my plants then this tells me I just need to get my plants flushed out better to acquire the flavor that they should be producing. I am just wondering. how many of you out there would say that when you go to harvest your plants , that most of the time, you’ve waited and flushed them enough to where the leaves have started to die off, or do you sometimes pick plants that are ready to pick according to trichomes , and you find that they still have a lot of green leaves? how often do you have one or the other? Well , Got a lot of work tonight ,, gona head out for now, I am grateful to have this blog to help me out , especially the good quality info from Papa Indica , and Dan Alchimia. thanks for your input. it is greatly appreciated. you can believe it.
Papa Indica 2015-08-20
Wow SteveO, I’m bummin’ for you, that’s some really shitty luck you’re having. In the early days of my growing I had a looong spell of terrible luck, just unsmokable shit. My troubles were different than yours, and I always grow small numbers but, still just as aggravating. So, so frustrating. The only thing that’s making any sense to me SteveO is they must be getting stressed somehow. I’m really not sure what to say beyond that. I think you should go over to the Firestax forum, get yourself registered, and post a new topic in either the “Introduce Yourself” section or the “Grow Threads” section, I’m sure someone there can help you better than me at this point. There are a lot of guys over there that REALLY know their shit. I thought I knew growing pretty well but, being over there is a humbling experience. They certainly don’t try to make it that way though, very good group of guys over there, very easy to get along with and they seem very willing to help others. I understand completely how you feel right now but, don’t give up, try to figure out what the problem is before starting the next crop. Like I said, I think it must be a stressing thing but you should definitely take my advice and seek some help there. If you do I’ll see you there. Best of luck bro.
Hey Papa Indica. SteveO here once again. your not gona believe this,,s–t,, went thru the craziness of pulling out the carpet in both grow rooms grow and flower, and out tile as you know, also painted, as well thoroughly cleaned everything, then had a decent run , but seemed to have a couple clicks to still work out, although had literally no seeds, well I wanted to change the room around , so I did an now, seeds are on the majority again. Im like ffcccckkkkk me. this is insane. Not only did I find a week or two in that I now am seeded in the room , and that most of them have seeds, I also found my greenhouse seeds , cheese starin had hermi flowers,even worse, as well my resrva prevada 0g-18 also found male flowers. I am so fcckd. I am about to end this game . This is just getting ridiculous. either overfeeding or male pollen, or spidermites, something always takes over every attempt I make at this Ive started chpping in the hopes to catch up with this crap once again. probably gona wipe everything out again , clean everything again and start with only a few strains to see if I can get it right. it seems I can grow the plant flawlessly nice , thick full lush and green everytime, every strain, then I get the plants to the aggtressive flowering stage , that’s when it all goes back down hill from there . like I said I cant get this figured out. I use three part general hydroponics with floralicious plus , big bud, and kool bloom. I ran this last batch in a 150 gallon rez with only 50 gallons worth of nutes , kept the room at around 75degrees consistenly with ph consistently stable at 5.8 ,added a mild steady flow of low dose co2 . what friggn more do these friggen things want?Jesus . I have done a lot of things in my life and have always been a master at following instructions, and have never been a quitter but this, IS getting ridiculous. There is something I am not getting right when it comes to 3/4 of the way thru flowering ,to the finished product. None of my bud has good flavor would you say that a plant should pretty much always have leaves dying on it before it should be chopped, because if that’s the case than I probably cut almost everything too early. I haven’t exactly kept up with time on the plants meaning keeping track of the days in flower. I have been putting many various strains in a flood and drain table at 1/3 strength nutes per water capacity. I feed them a ratio of 7,5,2, for basic growth and 8,5,2 for aggressive growth, both being applied in flower and grow. so that would be , 7ml grow 5ml micro,and 2ml flower for basic growth and for aggressive growth my chart says to up the 7 to 8 ml per gallon. then I run a ml of floralicious plus grow and flowering, and in flowering I add in the kool bloom 1ml per gallon and big bud at 5-10ml per gallon. Any suggestions out there would be much appreciated. All the seeds I am using are feminized so they are succeptable to turning hermi I know , but the environment has been diligently looked after. .